Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|標題:||Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition of Si-Based Thin Films for Heterojunction Solar Cell Applications|
|關鍵字:||hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD)|
two step growth
heterojunction solar cell (HJ solar cell)
|引用:||1. A. Fahrenbruch and R.H. Bube, "Fundamentals of solar cells: photovoltaic solar energy conversion", Academic press, New York, p. 9 (1983) 2. W. Adams and R. Day, "The Action of Light on Selenium", Proc. R. Soc., vol. 25, pp. 113-117 (1876) 3. D. Chapin, C. Fuller, and G. Pearson, "A New Silicone pn Junction for Converting Solar Radiation into Electric Power", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 25, pp. 676-677 (1954) 4. P. Verlinden, R. Sinton, and R. Swanson, "High efficiency large area back contact concentrator solar cells with a multilevel interconnection", Int. J. Sustain. Energy, vol. 6, pp. 347-366 (1988) 5. D. Reynolds, G. Leies, L. Antes, and R. Marburger, "Photovoltaic effect in cadmium sulfide", Phys. Rev., vol. 96, pp. 533-534 (1954) 6. J.A. Bragagnolo, A.M. Barnett, J.E. Phillips, R.B. Hall, A. Rothwarf, and J.D. Meakin, "The design and fabrication of thin-film CdS/Cu2S cells of 9.15-percent conversion efficiency", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 27, pp. 645-651 (1980) 7. R.S. Ohl, "Light-Sensitive Electric Device", United States Patent, No. 2402662, (1941) 8. E.F. Kingsbury and R.S. Ohl, "Photoelectric properties of ionically bombarded silicon", Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 31, pp. 802-815 (1952) 9. J. Haynos, J. Allison, R. Arndt, and A. Meulenberg. "The COMSAT nonreflective silicon solar cell: a second generation improved cell", Proceedings International Conference on Photovoltaic Power Generation, Hamburg, Germany, p. 487 (1974) 10. A. Blakers and M. Green, "20% efficiency silicon solar cells", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 48, pp. 215-217 (1986) 11. R.A. Sinton, K. Young, J.Y. Gan, and R.M. Swanson, "27.5-percent silicon concentrator solar cells", IEEE Electr. Device Lett., vol. 7, pp. 567-569 (1986) 12. J. Zhao, A. Wang, and M.A. Green, "24•5% Efficiency silicon PERT cells on MCZ substrates and 24•7% efficiency PERL cells on FZ substrates", Prog. Photovoltaics, vol. 7, pp. 471-474 (1999) 13. H. Sterling and R. Swann, "Chemical vapour deposition promoted by rf discharge", Solid State Electron., vol. 8, pp. 653-654 (1965) 14. R. Chittick, J. Alexander, and H. Sterling, "The preparation and properties of amorphous silicon", J. Electrochem. Soc. , vol. 116, pp. 77-81 (1969) 15. S. Veprek and V. Marecek, "The preparation of thin layers of Ge and Si by chemical hydrogen plasma transport", Solid State Electron., vol. 11, pp. 683-684 (1968) 16. P. Le Comber and W. Spear, "Electronic transport in amorphous silicon films", Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 25, pp. 509-511 (1970) 17. W. Spear and R. Loveland, "The temperature dependence f photoconductivity in a-Si", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 15, pp. 410-422 (1974) 18. P. LeComber and W. Spear, "Substitutional doping of amorphous silicon", Solid State Commun., vol. 17, pp. 1193 (1975) 19. W. Paul, A. Lewis, G. Connell, and T. Moustakas, "Doping, Schottky barrier and p---n junction formation in amorphous germanium and silicon by rf sputtering* 1", Solid State Commun., vol. 20, pp. 969-972 (1976) 20. S. Usui and M. Kikuchi, "Properties of heavily doped GD---Si with low resistivity", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 34, pp. 1-11 (1979) 21. A. Matsuda, S. Yamasaki, K. Nakagawa, H. Okushi, K. Tanaka, S. Iizima, M. Matsumura, and H. Yamamoto, "Electrical and Structural Properties of Phosphorous-Doped Glow-Discharge Si: F: H and Si: H Films", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 19, pp. L305-L308 (1980) 22. A. Matsuda, "Formation kinetics and control of microcrystallite in [mu] c-Si: H from glow discharge plasma", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 59, pp. 767-774 (1983) 23. M. Faraji, S. Gokhale, S. Choudhari, M. Takwale, and S. Ghaisas, "High mobility hydrogenated and oxygenated microcrystalline silicon as a photosensitive material in photovoltaic applications", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 60, pp. 3289-3291 (1992) 24. J.K. Rath, H. Meiling, and R.E.I. Schropp, "Purely intrinsic poly-silicon films for nip solar cells", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 36, pp. 5436-5443 (1997) 25. R.W. Collins, A.S. Ferlauto, G.M. Ferreira, C. Chen, J. Koh, R.J. Koval, Y. Lee, J.M. Pearce, and C.R. Wronski, "Evolution of microstructure and phase in amorphous, protocrystalline, and microcrystalline silicon studied by real time spectroscopic ellipsometry", Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C., vol. 78, pp. 143-180 (2003) 26. A. Gordijn, "Microcrystalline silicon for thin-film solar cells", Ph.D. dissertation, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands, p. 12, (2005) 27. R.E.I. Schropp and M. Zeman, "Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells: modeling, materials, and device technology", Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 5 (1998) 28. J. Meier, R. Fluckiger, H. Keppner, and A. Shah, "Complete microcrystalline p i n solar cell¡XCrystalline or amorphous cell behavior?", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 65, pp. 860-862 (1994) 29. P.A.T.T. van Veenendaal, "Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Polycrystalline Silicon: From Gas Molecule To Solar Cell", Ph.D. dissertation, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands, p. 13, (2002) 30. H. Wiesmann, A.K. Ghosh, T. McMahon, and M. Strongin, "a‐Si : H produced by high‐temperature thermal decomposition of silane", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 50, pp. 3752-3754 (1979) 31. H. Matsumura and H. Tachibana, "Amorphous silicon produced by a new thermal chemical vapor deposition method using intermediate species SiF2", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 47, pp. 833-835 (1985) 32. A.H. Mahan, S.P. Ahrenkiel, R.E.I. Schropp, H. Li, and D.S. Ginley, "A comparison of grain nucleation and grain growth during crystallization of HWCVD and PECVD a-Si:H films", Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, pp. 529-532 (2008) 33. Y. Zhou, B. Zhou, J. Gu, M. Zhu, and F. Liu, "Comparison of growth mechanisms of silicon thin films prepared by HWCVD with PECVD", Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, pp. 564-567 (2008) 34. A. Masuda, A. Izumi, H. Umemoto, and H. Matsumura, "What is the difference between catalytic CVD and plasma-enhanced CVD? Gas-phase kinetics and film properties", Vacuum, vol. 66, pp. 293-297 (2002) 35. J.R. Doyle, D.A. Doughty, and A. Gallagher, "Silane dissociation products in deposition discharges", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 68, pp. 4375-4384 (1990) 36. B. Schröder and S. Bauer, "Some indications of different film forming radicals in a-Si:H deposition by the glow discharge and thermocatalytic CVD processes", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 266-269, pp. 115-119 (2000) 37. K. Ishibashi, M. Karasawa, G. Xu, N. Yokokawa, M. Ikemoto, A. Masuda, and H. Matsumura, "Development of Cat-CVD apparatus for 1-m-size large-area deposition", Thin Solid Films, vol. 430, pp. 58-62 (2003) 38. W. Fuhs, K. Niemann, and J. Stuke, "Heterojunctions of Amorphous Silicon and Silicon Single Crystals", AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 20, pp. 345-350 (1974) 39. Y. Hamakawa, H. Okamoto, and K. Okuda, "Photovoltaic device", United States Patent, No. 4496788, (1985) 40. K. Wakisaka, M. Taguchi, T. Sawada, M. Tanaka, T. Matsuyama, T. Matsuoka, S. Tsuda, S. Nakano, Y. Kishi, and Y. Kuwano. "More than 16% solar cells with a new HIT(doped a-Si/nondoped a-Si/crystalline Si) structure", Proceedings of the 22nd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Las Vegas, USA, p. 887 (1991) 41. SANYO Electric Co. Ltd.,"http://panasonic.net/energy/solar/hit/", (2012) 42. M.A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, "Solar cell efficiency tables (version 37)", Prog. Photovoltaics, vol. 19, pp. 84-92 (2011) 43. M. Tanaka, S. Okamoto, S. Tsuge, and S. Kiyama. "Development of HIT solar cells with more than 21% conversion efficiency and commercialization of highest performance HIT modules", 3 rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Osaka, Japan, p. 955 (2003) 44. C. Droz, E. Vallat-Sauvain, J. Bailat, L. Feitknecht, J. Meier, and A. Shah, "Relationship between Raman crystallinity and open-circuit voltage in microcrystalline silicon solar cells", Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C., vol. 81, pp. 61-71 (2004) 45. Z. Iqbal, S. Veprek, A.P. Webb, and P. Capezzuto, "Raman scattering from small particle size polycrystalline silicon", Solid State Commun., vol. 37, pp. 993-996 (1981) 46. A. Langford, M. Fleet, B. Nelson, W. Lanford, and N. Maley, "Infrared absorption strength and hydrogen content of hydrogenated amorphous silicon", Phys. Rev. B, vol. 45, pp. 13367-13377 (1992) 47. J. Rath, R. Schropp, and W. Beyer, "Hydrogen at compact sites in hot-wire chemical vapour deposited polycrystalline silicon films", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 266, pp. 190-194 (2000) 48. J. Doyle, R. Robertson, G. Lin, M. He, and A. Gallagher, "Production of high quality amorphous silicon films by evaporative silane surface decomposition", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 64, pp. 3215-3223 (1988) 49. A. Mahan, J. Carapella, B. Nelson, R. Crandall, and I. Balberg, "Deposition of device quality, low H content amorphous silicon", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 69, pp. 6728-6730 (1991) 50. H. Matsumura, "Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition (CTC-CVD) Method Producing High Quality Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 25, pp. L949-L951 (1986) 51. H. Wiesmann, A. Ghosh, T. McMahon, and M. Strongin, "a Si: H produced by high temperature thermal decomposition of silane", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 50, pp. 3752-3754 (1979) 52. C. Godet, N. Layadi, and P. Roca i Cabarrocas, "Role of mobile hydrogen in the amorphous silicon recrystallization", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 66, pp. 3146-3148 (1995) 53. Y. Qin, H. Yan, F. Li, L. Qiao, Q. Liu, and D. He, "The optoelectronic properties of silicon films deposited by inductively coupled plasma CVD", Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 257, pp. 817-822 (2010) 54. A. Remolina, B. Monroy, M. Garcia-Sanchez, A. Ponce, M. Bizarro, J. Alonso, A. Ortiz, and G. Santana, "Polymorphous silicon thin films obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using dichlorosilane as silicon precursor", Nanotechnology, vol. 20, pp. 1-6 (2009) 55. M. Zhu, X. Guo, G. Chen, H. Han, M. He, and K. Sun, "Microstructures of microcrystalline silicon thin films prepared by hot wire chemical vapor deposition", Thin Solid Films, vol. 360, pp. 205-212 (2000) 56. R.E.I. Schropp and M. Zeman, "Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells : modeling, materials, and device technology", Kluwer Academic, Boston, p. (1998) 57. P. Kumar, D. Bhusari, D. Grunsky, M. Kupich, and B. Schroeder, "p-doped [mu] c-Si: H window layers prepared by hot-wire CVD for amorphous solar cell application", Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C., vol. 90, pp. 3345-3355 (2006) 58. M. Green, "Thin-film solar cells: review of materials, technologies and commercial status", J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., vol. 18, pp. 15-19 (2007) 59. A.H. Mahan, "Hot wire chemical vapor deposition of Si containing materials for solar cells", Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C., vol. 78, pp. 299-327 (2003) 60. Q. Wang, M.R. Page, E. Iwaniczko, Y.Q. Xu, L. Roybal, R. Bauer, B. To, H.C. Yuan, A. Duda, and Y.F. Yan. "Crystal silicon heterojunction solar cells by hot-wire CVD", Proceedings of the 33rd Photovoltaic Science and Engineering Conference, San Diego, USA, p. 1 (2008) 61. J.-H. Park, I.-H. Song, and M.-K. Han, "Low temperature short channel polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors with high reliability for flat panel display", Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, pp. 7402-7405 (2007) 62. M. Otobe and S. Oda, "The role of hydrogen radicals in nucleation and growth of nanocrystalline silicon", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 164-166, Part 2, pp. 993-996 (1993) 63. H. Matsumura, H. Umemoto, A. Izumi, and A. Masuda, "Recent progress of Cat-CVD research in Japan--bridging between the first and second Cat-CVD conferences", Thin Solid Films, vol. 430, pp. 7-14 (2003) 64. C. Niikura, R. Brenot, J. Guillet, and J.-E. Bourée, "Improved transport properties of microcrystalline silicon films grown by HWCVD with a variable hydrogen dilution process", Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, pp. 568-571 (2008) 65. T.I. Kamins, "Polycrystalline silicon for integrated circuits and displays", Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, p. 63 (1998) 66. R.H. Bube, "Photovoltaic materials", Imperial College Press, London, p. 57 (1998) 67. S.-M. Han, S.-J. Kim, J.-H. Park, S.-H. Choi, and M.-K. Han, "High quality nanocrystalline silicon thin film fabricated by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition at 350 °C", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 354, pp. 2268-2271 (2008) 68. J. Rath, F. Tichelaar, H. Meiling, and R.E.I. Schropp, "Hot-wire CVD poly-silicon films for thin film devices", Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., vol. 507, pp. 879-890 (1998) 69. K. Adhikary and S. Ray, "Characteristics of p-type nanocrystalline silicon thin films developed for window layer of solar cells", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 353, pp. 2289-2294 (2007) 70. Z. Hu, X. Liao, H. Diao, Y. Cai, S. Zhang, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, "Hydrogenated p-type nanocrystalline silicon in amorphous silicon solar cells", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 352, pp. 1900-1903 (2006) 71. P. Kumar, M. Kupich, D. Grunsky, and B. Schroeder, "Microcrystalline B-doped window layers prepared near amorphous to microcrystalline transition by HWCVD and its application in amorphous silicon solar cells", Thin Solid Films, vol. 501, pp. 260-263 (2006) 72. R.E.I. Schropp, "Advances in solar cells made with hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD): superior films and devices at low equipment cost", Thin Solid Films, vol. 403, pp. 17-25 (2002) 73. B.P. Nelson, E. Iwaniczko, A.H. Mahan, Q. Wang, Y. Xu, R.S. Crandall, and H.M. Branz, "High-deposition rate a-Si:H n-i-p solar cells grown by HWCVD", Thin Solid Films, vol. 395, pp. 292-297 (2001) 74. R.E.I. Schropp, "Present status of micro- and polycrystalline silicon solar cells made by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition", Thin Solid Films, vol. 451-452, pp. 455-465 (2004) 75. H. Matsumura, H. Umemoto, and A. Masuda, "Cat-CVD (hot-wire CVD): how different from PECVD in preparing amorphous silicon", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 338-340, pp. 19-26 (2004) 76. H. Umemoto, K. Ohara, D. Morita, Y. Nozaki, A. Masuda, and H. Matsumura, "Direct detection of H atoms in the catalytic chemical vapor deposition of the SiH4/H-2 system", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 91, pp. 1650-1656 (2002) 77. C. Tsai, G. Anderson, R. Thompson, and B. Wacker, "Control of silicon network structure in plasma deposition", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 114, pp. 151-153 (1989) 78. A. Matsuda, "Growth mechanism of microcrystalline silicon obtained from reactive plasmas", Thin Solid Films, vol. 337, pp. 1-6 (1999) 79. P. Gogoi and P. Agarwal, "Structural and optical studies on hot wire chemical vapour deposited hydrogenated silicon films at low substrate temperature", Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C., vol. 93, pp. 199-205 (2009) 80. D. Wang, Z. Yang, F. Li, and D. He, "The microstructure and optical properties of crystallized hydrogenated silicon films prepared by very high frequency glow discharge", Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 257, pp. 8350-8354 (2011) 81. K. Bhattacharya and D. Das, "Effect of deposition temperature on the growth of nanocrystalline silicon network from helium diluted silane plasma", J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. , vol. 41, pp. 155420 (2008) 82. J. Knights, G. Lucovsky, and R. Nemanich, "Defects in plasma-deposited a-Si:H", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 32, pp. 393-403 (1979) 83. P. Kumar, D. Bhusari, D. Grunsky, M. Kupich, and B. Schroeder, "p-doped [mu]c-Si:H window layers prepared by hot-wire CVD for amorphous solar cell application", Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 90, pp. 3345-3355 (2006) 84. S. Klein, F. Finger, R. Carius, H. Wagner, and M. Stutzmann, "Intrinsic amorphous and microcrystalline silicon by hot-wire-deposition for thin film solar cell applications", Thin Solid Films, vol. 395, pp. 305-309 (2001) 85. X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, F. Zhu, C. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Gao, J. Sun, G. Hou, X. Geng, and S. Xiong, "A combinatorial analysis of deposition parameters and substrates on performance of [mu] c-Si:H thin films by VHF-PECVD", Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 245, pp. 1-5 (2005) 86. J. Gu, M. Zhu, L. Wang, F. Liu, B. Zhou, K. Ding, and G. Li, "High quality microcrystalline Si films by hydrogen dilution profile", Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, pp. 452-455 (2006) 87. K. Saitoh, M. Kondo, M. Fukawa, T. Nishimiya, A. Matsuda, W. Futako, and I. Shimizu, "Role of the hydrogen plasma treatment in layer-by-layer deposition of microcrystalline silicon", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 71, pp. 3403-3405 (1997) 88. H. Chen, M.H. Gullanar, and W.Z. Shen, "Effects of high hydrogen dilution on the optical and electrical properties in B-doped nc-Si:H thin films", J. Cryst. Growth vol. 260, pp. 91-101 (2004) 89. D. Das and K. Bhattacharya, "Characterization of the Si:H network during transformation from amorphous to micro- and nanocrystalline structures", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 100, pp. 103701-8 (2006) 90. H.L. Hsiao, Y.Y. Shieh, R.S. Lee, R.Y. Wang, K.C. Wang, H.L. Hwang, and A.B. Yang, "Electrical and structural properties of low temperature boron- and phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by ECR-CVD", Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 142, pp. 400-406 (1999) 91. T. Sawada, N. Terada, S. Tsuge, T. Baba, T. Takahama, K. Wakisaka, S. Tsuda, and S. Nakano. "High-efficiency a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cell", 1st World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Hawaii, USA, p. 1219 (1994) 92. H. Yamamoto, Y. Takaba, Y. Komatsu, M.J. Yang, T. Hayakawa, M. Shimizu, and H. Takiguchi, "High-efficiency [mu] c-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells", Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C., vol. 74, pp. 525-531 (2002) 93. Q. Wang, M. Page, Y. Xu, E. Iwaniczko, E. Williams, and T. Wang, "Development of a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition n-type emitter on p-type crystalline Si-based solar cells", Thin Solid Films, vol. 430, pp. 208-211 (2003) 94. Q. Zhang, M. Zhu, F. Liu, and J. Liu, "Properties of n-type [mu] c-Si: H films by Cat-CVD for c-Si heterojunction solar cells", Thin Solid Films, vol. 501, pp. 141-143 (2006) 95. J. Sritharathikhun, F. Jiang, S. Miyajima, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, "Optimization of p-Type Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon Oxide Window Layer for High-Efficiency Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 48, pp. 101603 (2009) 96. Q. Wang, "High-efficiency hydrogenated amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells", Philos. Mag., vol. 89, pp. 2587-2598 (2009) 97. A. Kanevce and W.K. Metzger, "The role of amorphous silicon and tunneling in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cells", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 105, pp. 094507 (2009) 98. C. Summonte, R. Rizzoli, M. Bianconi, A. Desalvo, D. Iencinella, and F. Giorgis, "Wide band-gap silicon-carbon alloys deposited by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 96, pp. 3987-3997 (2004) 99. M. Park, C. Teng, V. Sakhrani, M. McLaurin, R. Kolbas, R. Sanwald, R. Nemanich, J. Hren, and J. Cuomo, "Optical characterization of wide band gap amorphous semiconductors (a-Si:C:H): Effect of hydrogen dilution", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 89, pp. 1130-1137 (2001) 100. Y. Tawada, K. Tsuge, M. Kondo, H. Okamoto, and Y. Hamakawa, "Properties and structure of a SiC:H for high efficiency a Si solar cell", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 53, pp. 5273-5281 (1982) 101. T. Chen, Y. Huang, H. Wang, D. Yang, A. Dasgupta, R. Carius, and F. Finger, "Microcrystalline silicon carbide thin films grown by HWCVD at different filament temperatures and their application in nip microcrystalline silicon solar cells", Thin Solid Films, vol. 517, pp. 3513-3515 (2009) 102. Y. Huang, A. Dasgupta, A. Gordijn, F. Finger, and R. Carius, "Highly transparent microcrystalline silicon carbide grown with hot wire chemical vapor deposition as window layers in nip microcrystalline silicon solar cells", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 90, pp. 203502 (2007) 103. S. Klein, L. Houben, R. Carius, F. Finger, and W. Fischer, "Structural properties of microcrystalline SiC deposited at low substrate temperatures by HWCVD", J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 352, pp. 1376-1379 (2006) 104. A. Dasgupta, Y. Huang, L. Houben, S. Klein, F. Finger, R. Carius, and M. Luysberg, "Effect of filament and substrate temperatures on the structural and electrical properties of SiC thin films grown by the HWCVD technique", Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, pp. 622-625 (2008) 105. M. Yu, M. Rusli, S. Yoon, Z. Chen, J. Ahn, Q. Zhang, K. Chew, and J. Cui, "INTERDISCIPLINARY AND GENERAL PHYSICS (PACS 1-41, 43-47, 79, 81-84, 89-99)-Deposition of nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide films using the hot-filament chemical-vapor-deposition method", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 87, pp. 8155-8158 (2000) 106. A. Brockhoff, W. van der Weg, and F. Habraken, "The effects of hot-wire atomic hydrogen on amorphous silicon", J. Appl. Phys., vol. 89, pp. 2993 (2001) 107. A. Heya, A. Masuda, and H. Matsumura, "Low-temperature crystallization of amorphous silicon using atomic hydrogen generated by catalytic reaction on heated tungsten", Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 74, pp. 2143-2145 (1999) 108. A. Brockhoff, W. van der Weg, and F. Habraken, "Hot-wire produced atomic hydrogen: effects during and after amorphous-silicon deposition", Thin Solid Films, vol. 395, pp. 87-91 (2001) 109. B. Pantchev, P. Danesh, E. Liarokapis, B. Schmidt, J. Schmidt, and D. Grambole, "Effect of post-hydrogenation on the structural properties of amorphous silicon network", Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 43, pp. 454-458 (2004) 110. R.E.I. Schropp and M. Zeman, "Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon solar cells : modeling, materials, and device technology", Kluwer Academic, Boston, p. (1998) 111. D. Das and K. Bhattacharya, "Characterization of the Si : H network during transformation from amorphous to micro- and nanocrystalline structures", Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 100, pp. (2006)|
Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) is one of the semiconductor fabrication processes to grow thin film materials. The HWCVD system is composed of vacuum system, gas flow controls, and catalytic wires where Tungsten, Tantalum or Iridium are often used. In a typical HWCVD process, the temperature of wire can increase to 1500~2000 by increasing the DC current. The source gases are entered into the vacuum chamber and decomposed (or catalyzed) by the high temperature wires. The substrate is exposed to one or more volatile precursors which react or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired deposit. The dissertation introduces the solar cell research evolution and the lately study of Si film. It also overviews the mechanisms of hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The advantages and the disadvantages of these two CVD are presented and compared. The study in the dissertation is using the HWCVD system and depositing Si based films for photovoltaic applications. The results includes four subjects of “Growth and characterization of intrinsic Si film”, “Deposition and characterization of poly-Si thin films using a two-step growth method”, “Deposition and characterization of p-type nanocrystalline Si (p-nc-Si) films for photovoltaic applications” and “Deposition and characterization of p-type nanocrystalline Si (p-nc-SiC)films for photovoltaic applications”. The intrinsic Si film such as amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline have grown by HWCVD. The influence of deposition parameters such as substrate temperature and hydrogen dilution ratio has been presentation. Based on the identification of hydrogen dilution, a two-step growth method with high/low hydrogen dilution ratios was studied. In the two-step growth process, a thin seed layer was first grown on the glass substrate under high hydrogen dilution ratio and then a thick over layer was subsequently deposited upon the seed layer at a lower hydrogen dilution ratio. The amorphous Si incubation layer could be suppressed greatly in the initial growth of poly-Si film with the two-step growth method. In the subsequent poly-Si film thickening, a lower hydrogen dilution ratio value of the reactant gases can be applied to enhance the deposition rate. The electrical properties were also enhanced. The effects of H2 on the characteristics of p-nc-Si and p-nc-SiC films were analyzed. The optimized parameters of p-nc-Si and p-nc-SiC films were applied as emitter layer in the Si HJ solar cells. The 12.5 % and 14.09 % of photovoltaic conversion efficiencies could be obtained, respectively. These are very encouraging results for the industrial fabrication of high efficiency heterojunction solar cells by using HWCVD technique.
|Appears in Collections:||材料科學與工程學系|
Show full item record
TAIR Related Article
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.