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標題: 不同矽與錳含量對Fe-Cr-C硬面合金磨耗行為之影響
The Wear Behaviors of Various Si and Mn Contents on Fe-Cr-C Hardfacing Alloys
作者: 林啟明
Lin, Chi-Ming
關鍵字: Gas tungsten arc welding
Hardfacing alloy
Martensite levels
Adhesive wear behavior
出版社: 材料工程學系所
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摘要: 本實驗研究不同矽與錳含量對Fe-Cr-C硬面合金磨耗行為之影響,利用鎢極惰性氣體遮護電弧銲接法(Gas Tungsten Arc Welding,GTAW),將預先配製的Fe-Cr-C-xSi-yMn合金填料(x=0.5~1.5wt%、y=0.3~2.0wt%),銲覆在S45C碳鋼基材表面上。藉由X-ray繞射分析與金相顯微結構觀察來鑑定銲覆層之結構,並利用乾砂磨耗試驗與環對盤黏著磨耗試驗,來評估銲覆層之抗磨耗能力,再利用掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)觀察磨耗表面,藉此了解磨耗行為。 經由X-ray繞射分析與金相顯微結構觀察結果顯示,不同的金屬填料經GTAW施銲後,其顯微結構主要是由麻田散鐵組織與少許沃斯田鐵組織所構成,且銲覆層麻田散鐵量會隨錳含量的增加而下降。經成份分析(EDS-mapping)發現,無元素聚集的情形產生。硬度測試方面,硬面合金的硬度值大小跟銲覆層麻田散鐵量成正比,硬度值大小會隨錳含量的增加而下降,矽含量的增加對硬度值無顯著的影響,故硬面合金成份為Fe-5.3Cr-0.6C-0.3Mn-0.5Si時,有最大的硬度值(HRC63)。 乾砂磨耗試驗結果顯示,試片的抗磨耗性質跟銲覆層麻田散鐵量與硬度值大小成正比,磨耗量會隨錳含量的增加而增加,矽含量的增加對磨耗量無顯著的影響,故硬面合金(Fe-Cr-C)中添加0.3Mn-1.0Si時,有最佳的抗磨耗能力。乾砂磨耗試驗之磨耗機構會受到銲覆層麻田散鐵量與硬度值而影響,當銲覆層硬度值高於HRC60與麻田散鐵量高於77%以上時,其磨耗機構以微切削為主,因此其抗磨耗能力較佳;當銲覆層硬度值低於HRC56與麻田散鐵量低於65%時,其磨耗機構以犁溝為主,因此其抗磨耗能力較差。 黏著磨耗試驗結果顯示,磨耗率的大小會跟銲覆層麻田散鐵量成正比,磨耗率的大小會隨錳含量的增加而下降,矽含量的增加對磨耗率無顯著的影響,故在硬面合金(Fe-Cr-C)中添加1.4Mn-1.0Si時,有最佳的抗黏著磨耗能力。黏著磨耗試驗之磨耗機構會受到銲覆層沃斯田鐵量與試片表面韌性大小而影響,當銲覆層沃斯田鐵量較少(20~25%),相對的試片表面韌性較差時,其磨耗機構以磨料磨耗為主,因此其抗磨耗能力較差;當銲覆層沃斯田鐵量較多(34%),相對的試片表面韌性較佳時,其磨耗機構以氧化磨耗為主,因此其抗磨耗能力較佳。
This research discussed the wear behaviors of various Si and Mn contents on Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys. A series of Fe-Cr-C-xSi-yMn alloy fillers (x=0.5~1.5wt%, y=0.3~2.0 wt%) were designed to investigate the effect of Si and Mn on the wear behaviors of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was used to deposit these coating alloys on the S45C carbon steel substrates. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) and metallographic examination were carried out to understand the microstructure of these coating layers. Sand wheel abrasion test and adhesive wear test of ring-on-disc were used to evaluate the wear resistance of hardfacing alloys. In addition, the worn surfaces were observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The x-ray diffraction and metallurgy microstructure observation results revealed that the microstructure of coating layer consisted of massive amounts of martensite and a slight amounts of austenite. However, the content of martensite decreased with increasing of Mn contents in the coating layer. It was found form the EDS-mapping that the elements distributed uniformly without aggregation of the elements. The hardness test results showed that the hardness enhanced when the Mn contents decreased due to the amounts of martensite arose. But the hardness has no obvious variation with the addition of Si. Therefore, the highest hardness of coating layer was obtained in Fe-5.3Cr-0.6C-0.3Mn-0.5Si. The sand wheel abrasion test results indicated that the wear resistance of specimen increased with the martensite levels and the hardness value increasing in coating layer. The weight loss of coating layer increased with the addition of Mn contents, but the weight loss had unapparent change with the addition of Si. Hence, the best wear resistance of sand wheel abrasion was obtained in Fe-5.3Cr-0.6C-0.3Mn-1.0Si. The wear mechanism of sand wheel abrasion was affected with martensite levels and the hardness value of coating layer. When the hardness value exceeded HRC60 and the martensite levels of coating layer reached over 77%, the wear mechanism was controlled by microcutting, therefore the wear resistance of specimen became better. When the hardness value was below HRC56 and the martensite levels of coating layer was below 65%, the wear mechanism was controlled by the ploughing, therefore the wear resistance of specimen became worse. The adhesive wear test results represented that the wear rate decreased with increasing of the Mn contents because the martensite levels of coating layer decreased, but the wear rate had unapparent change with the addition of Si. For this reason, the best wear resistance of adhesive wear was obtained in Fe-5.3Cr-0.6C-1.4Mn-1.0Si. The wear mechanism of adhesive wear was affected with austenite levels of welding layer as well as the toughness of specimen surface. When the amount of austenite was 20~25%, the wear mechanism was controlled by the abrasive wear, therefore the wear resistance of specimen became worse. When the amount of austenite was 34%, the wear mechanism was controlled by the oxidative wear, therefore the wear resistance of specimen became better.
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