Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/11277
標題: Cr-20Fe-xC硬面合金顯微結構特徵與磨損磨耗行為之研究
The Study of Microstructural Characteristics and Abrasive Wear Behaviors in Cr-20Fe-xC Hard-Facing Alloys
作者: 林啟明
Lin, Chi-Ming
關鍵字: Cr-20Fe-xC硬面合金
Cr-20Fe-xC hard-facing alloys
顯微結構特徵
相織構
破裂韌性(KC)
磨損磨耗
Microstructure characteristic
Phase texture
Fracture toughness (KC)
Abrasive wear
出版社: 材料科學與工程學系所
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摘要: 本研究利用鎢極惰性氣體遮護電弧銲接法(Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, GTAW)將四組不同配比之純鉻粉與碳化鉻粉(CrC, Cr:C=4:1)合金填料,銲覆在S45C中碳鋼基材表面上而形成Cr-20Fe-xC之硬面合金層,針對硬面合金層做晶體結構鑑定、顯微結構特徵觀察、相織構分析、初晶碳化物機械性質評估與磨損磨耗性能分析,以探討Cr-20Fe-xC硬面合金中顯微結構特徵、初晶碳化物機械性質與磨損磨耗行為彼此間之相互關係。 實驗結果顯示Cr-20Fe-xC硬面合金被成功地銲覆在S45C中碳鋼基材表面上,且產生由Cr-Fe相、(Cr,Fe)23C6與(Cr,Fe)7C3碳化物所組成之亞共晶、近共晶與過共晶組織,而母材與銲覆層的界面處呈現高品質的冶金鍵結,且銲覆層具有相當均勻之化學成份分佈與硬度分佈。Cr-20Fe-xC硬面合金中初晶與共晶Cr-Fe相之成長方位皆傾向往[111]的方向成長,若合金成份落在過共晶成份時,則初晶碳化物的成長方向會與鄰近共晶碳化物的成長方向一致。 此外,初晶(Cr,Fe)23C6與(Cr,Fe)7C3碳化物的形態屬於多邊形,而初晶Cr-Fe相的形態則為樹枝狀形態。由於初晶(Cr,Fe)23C6與(Cr,Fe)7C3碳化物屬於單晶結構,且晶粒內部只包含少量的低角度晶界,因此其固/液界面以faceted的方式成長而導致多邊形態的產生;但是,初晶Cr-Fe相為多晶結構,且晶粒內部包含大量的高角度晶界,因此其固/液界面以non-faceted的方式成長而導致樹枝狀形態的產生。當銲覆層碳含量從2.3wt%增加至5.9wt%時,其共晶碳化物的形態會從規則層狀轉變為等軸層狀再轉變為不規則塊狀最後在過渡為規則柱狀形態。 由壓痕試驗證實初晶碳化物之裂縫形態為Palmqvist,且利用Niihara學者所提出之“KC=0.0089(E/Hv)2/5(P/al1/2)”理論方程式最適合評估初晶碳化物之破裂韌性,其初晶(Cr,Fe)23C6與(Cr,Fe)7C3碳化物的破裂韌性分別為3.8與2.4 MPa.m1/2。銲覆層上表面硬度隨著銲覆層碳含量增加而增加,且當銲覆層碳含量為5.9wt%時,因顯微結構由高硬度之初晶(Cr,Fe)7C3碳化物與共晶α+(Cr,Fe)7C3所構成,導致銲覆層擁有最佳之硬度值(63.9 HRC)與最低之磨耗速率(6.27 mg.km-1)。磨耗重量損失與移動距離成一線性正比的關係,且銲覆層抗磨損磨耗能力隨銲覆層硬度與碳化物含量增加而增加。 當顯微結構為亞共晶與近共晶結構時,其磨料與銲覆層硬度比值介於1.2~1.5時,磨損磨耗機構以連續與不連續微犁溝及微切削為主,此時銲覆層表面具有較差之抗磨損磨耗能力;當顯微結構為過共晶結構時,其磨料與銲覆層硬度比值介於0.9~1.1時,磨損磨耗機構以選擇性微切削與不連續犁溝及碳化物破裂為主,此時銲覆層具有較佳之抗磨損磨耗能力。
This investigation discusses the relationship among the microstructural characteristics, the mechanical properties of primary carbides and the abrasive wear behaviors in Cr-20Fe-xC hard-facing alloys. Four alloy fillers with different pure chromium and chromium carbide (CrC, Cr:C = 4:1) powders are deposited on S45C medium carbon steel by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) to form the hard-facing layers of Cr-20Fe-xC alloys. The analysis of hard-facing layer concentrates on the identification of crystal structure, the observation of microstructure characteristic, the analysis of phase texture, the evaluation of mechanical property of primary carbide and the estimation of abrasive wear perfromance. Results reveal that Cr-20Fe-xC hard-facing alloys are successfully fabricated on S45C medium carbon steel substrates and obtain the hypoeutectic, near-eutectic and hypereutectic structures of Cr-Fe phase, (Cr,Fe)23C6 and (Cr,Fe)7C3 carbides. Furthermore, the interface between substrate and hard-facing layer possesses high-quality metallurgical bonding and the distributions of chemical composition and hardness are vey uniform. In Cr-20Fe-xC hard-facing alloys, the growth directions of primary and eutectic Cr-Fe phases tend to the [111] direction. As the alloy composition is the hypereutectic alloy, the growth direction of primary carbide is same to that of the adjacent eutectic carbide. Moreover, the morphologies of primary (Cr,Fe)23C6 and (Cr,Fe)7C3 carbides are faceted structures with polygonal shapes, different from primary α-phase with dendritic shape. The primary (Cr,Fe)23C6 and (Cr,Fe)7C3 carbides with strong texture exist a single crystal structure and contain a slight low angle boundary, resulting in the polygonal growth mechanism. Nevertheless, the primary α-phase with relative random orientation exhibits a polycrystalline structure and comprises a massive high-angle boundary, caused by the dendritic growth mechanism. The morphologies of eutectic carbides transit from regular lamellar, equiaxed lamellar, irregular block to regular rod-like, as carbon contents continuously increase from 2.3 to 5.9 wt%. The cracking systems of primary carbides shown by the polishing procedure are Palmqvist cracks. Niihara''s equation “KC=0.0089(E/Hv)2/5(P/al1/2)” is the most appropriate to evaluate KC of primary carbides, after experimentally assessing its applicability. The KC (MPa.m1/2) of primary (Cr,Fe)23C6 and (Cr,Fe)7C3 carbides are 3.8 and 2.4. As the carbon is 5.9 wt%, the hard-facing layer has the highest hardness of 63.9 HRC and the best wear resistance of 6.27 mg.km-1, attributed to the microstructure with primary (Cr,Fe)7C3 carbides and [α+(Cr,Fe)7C3] eutectic colony. Wear loss is a proportional to sliding distance during abrasive wear test. Abrasive wear resistance of the coated surface increases as the hardness and the carbide fraction increases. As the hardness ratio of abrasive and hard-facing alloy is 1.2~1.5, the abrasive wear mechanism is controlled by continuous and discontinuous micro-plough and micro-cutting in hypoeutectic and eutectic alloys. On the other hands, selective wear and carbide fracture occur in hypereutectic alloy, as the hardness ratio of abrasive and hard-facing alloy is 0.9~1.1. The abrasive wear resistance in hypereutectic alloys are more excellent than that in hypoeutectic and eutectic alloys.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/11277
其他識別: U0005-1607201214420400
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1607201214420400
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