Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/11379
標題: 應用新穎材料改善垂直式氮化鎵發光二極體之特性研究
Improvements of Vertical Conductive GaN LEDs Using Novel Materials
作者: 高偉程
Kao, Wei-Cheng
關鍵字: 氮化鎵
GaN
發光二極體
無電電鍍
金屬接合
類鑽碳膜
LED
electroless plating
wafer bonding
DLC
出版社: 材料科學與工程學系所
引用: [1] Z. Q. Dong, J. J. Chen, Y. K. Qin, M. Qin, and Q. A. Huang, "Fabrication of a Micromachined Two-Dimensional Wind Sensor by Au-Au Wafer Bonding Technology," Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 21, pp. 467-475, Apr 2012. [2] M. Asakura, Y. Kominami, T. Hayashi, S. Tsuruta, and T. Kawai, "The effect of zinc levels in a gold-based alloy on porcelain-metal bonding," Dental Materials, vol. 28, pp. E35-E41, May 2012. [3] W. S. Wong, A. B. Wengrow, Y. Cho, A. Salleo, N. J. Quitoriano, N. W. Cheung, and T. Sands, "Integration of GaN thin films with dissimilar substrate materials by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 28, pp. 1409-1413, Dec 1999. [4]莊達人,VLSI製造技術,高立書局,第12-18頁,2002。. [5] P. Wurfel, "Limits on light emission from silicon," Chinese Optics Letters, vol. 7, pp. 268-270, Apr 2009. [6]V. I. Gorbunkov and V. I. Solomonov, "Absorption and Emission Lines of a Mercury Molecule in a Mercury Discharge Lamp," Optics and Spectroscopy, vol. 105, pp. 699-704, Nov 2008. [7]M. Ojanen, P. Karha, and E. Ikonen, "Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range," Applied Optics, vol. 49, pp. 880-886, Feb 2010. [8]N. Hossain, S. R. Jin, S. Liebich, M. Zimprich, K. Volz, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, and S. J. Sweeney, "Efficiency-limiting processes in Ga(NAsP)/GaP quantum well lasers," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 101, pp. 011107-4, 2012. [9]Y. Wang, X. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Huang, C. Wei, and Y. Zhao, "Effective light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells from textured Al doped ZnO substrates with broad surface feature distributions," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 100, pp. 263508-4, 2012. [10] G. P. Dimitrakopulos, "Epitaxial relationship of semipolar s-plane InN grown on r-plane sapphire," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 101, pp. 011904-4, 2012. [11] Y. Tsuyama, K. Yamanaka, K. Namura, S. Chaki, and N. Shinohara, "Internally-matched GaN HEMT high efficiency power amplifier for SPS," in Microwave Workshop Series on Innovative Wireless Power Transmission: Technologies, Systems, and Applications (IMWS), 2011 IEEE MTT-S International, 2011, pp. 41-44. [12] 施敏 原著,張俊彥 譯著,半導體元件物理與製程技術,第三版,高立圖書有限公司,台北,台灣,pp.192-206,2000。 [13]Y. y. Lin, J. Zhang, X.-c. Zou, and W. Li, "An efficiency-enhanced low dropout Linear HB LED driver for automotive application," in Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits, 2008. EDSSC 2008. IEEE International Conference on, 2008, pp. 1-4. [14]Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, B. J. Kim, H. k. Yu, C. J. Yoo, and J.-L. Lee, "Effects of W diffusion barrier on inhibition of AlN formation in Ti/W/Al ohmic contacts on N-face n-GaN," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99, pp. 233502-3, 2011. [15]K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, I. MacLaren, M. Myronov, and D. R. Leadley, "Ohmic contacts to n-type germanium with low specific contact resistivity," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 100, pp. 022113-3, 2012. [16]W. Macherzynski, A. Stafiniak, A. Szyszka, J. Gryglewicz, B. Paszkiewicz, R. Paszkiewicz, and M. Tlaczala, "Effect of annealing temperature on the morphology of ohmic contact Ti/Al/Ni/Au to n-AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," Optica Applicata, vol. 39, pp. 673-679, 2009. [17]S. Bader, W. Gust, and H. Hieber, "Rapid formation of intermetallic compounds interdiffusion in the Cu [1] Z. Q. Dong, J. J. Chen, Y. K. Qin, M. Qin, and Q. A. Huang, "Fabrication of a Micromachined Two-Dimensional Wind Sensor by Au-Au Wafer Bonding Technology," Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 21, pp. 467-475, Apr 2012. [2] M. Asakura, Y. Kominami, T. Hayashi, S. Tsuruta, and T. Kawai, "The effect of zinc levels in a gold-based alloy on porcelain-metal bonding," Dental Materials, vol. 28, pp. E35-E41, May 2012. [3] W. S. Wong, A. B. Wengrow, Y. Cho, A. Salleo, N. J. Quitoriano, N. W. Cheung, and T. Sands, "Integration of GaN thin films with dissimilar substrate materials by Pd-In metal bonding and laser lift-off," Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 28, pp. 1409-1413, Dec 1999. [4]莊達人,VLSI製造技術,高立書局,第12-18頁,2002。. [5] P. Wurfel, "Limits on light emission from silicon," Chinese Optics Letters, vol. 7, pp. 268-270, Apr 2009. [6]V. I. Gorbunkov and V. I. Solomonov, "Absorption and Emission Lines of a Mercury Molecule in a Mercury Discharge Lamp," Optics and Spectroscopy, vol. 105, pp. 699-704, Nov 2008. [7]M. Ojanen, P. Karha, and E. Ikonen, "Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range," Applied Optics, vol. 49, pp. 880-886, Feb 2010. [8]N. Hossain, S. R. Jin, S. Liebich, M. Zimprich, K. Volz, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, and S. J. Sweeney, "Efficiency-limiting processes in Ga(NAsP)/GaP quantum well lasers," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 101, pp. 011107-4, 2012. [9]Y. Wang, X. Zhang, L. Bai, Q. Huang, C. Wei, and Y. Zhao, "Effective light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells from textured Al doped ZnO substrates with broad surface feature distributions," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 100, pp. 263508-4, 2012. [10] G. P. Dimitrakopulos, "Epitaxial relationship of semipolar s-plane InN grown on r-plane sapphire," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 101, pp. 011904-4, 2012. [11] Y. Tsuyama, K. Yamanaka, K. Namura, S. Chaki, and N. Shinohara, "Internally-matched GaN HEMT high efficiency power amplifier for SPS," in Microwave Workshop Series on Innovative Wireless Power Transmission: Technologies, Systems, and Applications (IMWS), 2011 IEEE MTT-S International, 2011, pp. 41-44. [12] 施敏 原著,張俊彥 譯著,半導體元件物理與製程技術,第三版,高立圖書有限公司,台北,台灣,pp.192-206,2000。 [13]Y. y. Lin, J. Zhang, X.-c. Zou, and W. Li, "An efficiency-enhanced low dropout Linear HB LED driver for automotive application," in Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits, 2008. EDSSC 2008. IEEE International Conference on, 2008, pp. 1-4. [14]Y. H. Song, J. H. Son, B. J. Kim, H. k. Yu, C. J. Yoo, and J.-L. Lee, "Effects of W diffusion barrier on inhibition of AlN formation in Ti/W/Al ohmic contacts on N-face n-GaN," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99, pp. 233502-3, 2011. [15]K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, I. MacLaren, M. Myronov, and D. R. Leadley, "Ohmic contacts to n-type germanium with low specific contact resistivity," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 100, pp. 022113-3, 2012. [16]W. Macherzynski, A. Stafiniak, A. Szyszka, J. Gryglewicz, B. Paszkiewicz, R. Paszkiewicz, and M. Tlaczala, "Effect of annealing temperature on the morphology of ohmic contact Ti/Al/Ni/Au to n-AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," Optica Applicata, vol. 39, pp. 673-679, 2009. [17]S. Bader, W. Gust, and H. Hieber, "Rapid formation of intermetallic compounds interdiffusion in the Cu Sn and Ni Sn systems," Acta Metallurgica et Materialia, vol. 43, pp. 329-337, 1995. [18]J. Zhang, Q. Shen, G. Q. Luo, M. J. Li, and L. M. Zhang, "Microstructure and bonding strength of diffusion welding of MoCu joints with Ni interlayer," Materials & Design, vol. 39, pp. 81-86, Aug 2012. [19] J. P. Moening and D. G. Georgiev, "Fabrication of sharp conical microstructures on Si films by Nd:YAG-laser single-pulse irradiation," in Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2008 and 2008 Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science. CLEO/QELS 2008. Conference on, 2008, pp. 1-2. [20] Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, "Cr4+:YAG as passive Q-switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser," Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of, vol. 31, pp. 1738-1741, 1995. [21] Y. Bai, X. M. Chen, B. L. Lu, Z. Y. Ren, and J. T. Bai, "Short pulse width UV laser at 355 nm based on pulse LD side-pumped ceramic Nd:YAG and BBO electro-optical Q-switched," Laser Physics, vol. 22, pp. 393-397, Feb 2012. [22] L. Seri, "Optimum design and selection of heat sinks," in Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium, 1995. SEMI-THERM XI., Eleventh Annual IEEE, 1995, pp. 48-54. [23] S. Simoes, F. Viana, M. Kocak, A. S. Ramos, M. T. Vieira, and M. F. Vieira, "Microstructure of Reaction Zone Formed During Diffusion Bonding of TiAl with Ni/Al Multilayer," Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, vol. 21, pp. 678-682, May 2012. [24] M. Q. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. J. Sun, G. Y. Zhang, Y. Z. Tong, and H. L. Duan, "Thermo-mechanical solution of film/substrate systems under local thermal load and application to laser lift-off of GaN/sapphire structures," International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 49, pp. 1701-1711, Jun 2012. [25] M. X. Feng, S. M. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. P. Liu, H. Wang, C. Zeng, Z. C. Li, H. B. Wang, F. Wang, and H. Yang, "Thermal characterization of GaN-based laser diodes by forward-voltage method," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 111, May 2012. [26] A. Z. Goharrizi, Z. Hassan, and H. Abu Hassan, "The effect of oxide aperture diameter on the electrical characteristics of the GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Ieice Electronics Express, vol. 9, pp. 179-184, Feb 2012. [27] D. A. Stocker, I. D. Goepfert, E. F. Schubert, K. S. Boutros, and J. M. Redwing, "Crystallographic wet chemical etching of p-type GaN," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 147, pp. 763-764, Feb 2000. [28] P. Nostell, A. Roos, and D. Ronnow, "Single-beam integrating sphere spectrophotometer for reflectance and transmittance measurements versus angle of incidence in the solar wavelength range on diffuse and specular samples," Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 70, pp. 2481-2494, 1999. [29] T. Ding, A. P. J. Middelberg, T. Huber, and R. J. Falconer, "Far-infrared spectroscopy analysis of linear and cyclic peptides, and lysozyme," Vibrational Spectroscopy, vol. 61, pp. 144-150, Jul 2012. [30] S. A. Knickerbocker and A. K. Kulkarni, "Erratum: Estimation and verification of the optical properties of indium-tin-oxide based on the energy band diagram," Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, vol. 15, pp. 206-206, 1997. [31]陳隆建,發光二極體之原理與製程,2006。 [32]高至鈞,汪建民,材料分析,中國材料科學學會,台灣,1998。 [33]陳立俊,張立,梁鉅銘,林文台,楊哲人,鄭晃忠,材料電 微鏡學,國家實驗研究院儀器科技研究中心,台灣,1990。 [34]鄧建龍、姚潔宜、張茂男,X-ray Diffraction Utilized in the Semiconductor Industry, Nano Communication, p. 15, 4, 2008. [35] S. S. Djokic, "Electroless deposition of cobalt using hydrazine as a reducing agent," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 144, pp. 2358-2363, Jul 1997. [36]H. Okamoto, "Au-In (gold-indium)," Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion, vol. 25, pp. 197-198, 2004. [37] M. S. Yi and D. Y. Noh, "Strain relaxation of GaN nucleation layers during rapid thermal annealing," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 78, pp. 2443-2445, 2001. [38] P. K. Basu, R. M. Pujahari, H. Kaur, D. Singh, D. Varandani, and B. R. Mehta, "Impact of surface roughness on the electrical parameters of industrial high efficiency NaOH-NaOCl textured multicrystalline silicon solar cell," Solar Energy, vol. 84, pp. 1658-1665, Sep 2010. [39] A. Y. Hudeish, A. Abdul Aziz, Z. Hassan, C. K. Tan, H. Abu Hassan, and K. Ibrahim, "Investigations of surface roughness of GaN based gas sensor using atomic force microscope," in Sensors and the International Conference on new Techniques in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research, 2005 Asian Conference on, 2005, pp. 222-225. [40] F. Yu, Z. Chen, S. Qi, S. Wang, S. Jiang, X. Fu, X. Jiang, T. Yu, Z. Qin, X. Kang, J. Wu, and G. Zhang, "Changing oblique angles of pyramid facets fabricated by wet etching of N polar GaN," CrystEngComm, vol. 14, pp. 4781-4785, 2012. [41] S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 95, Aug 2009. [42] A. Y. Kim, W. Gotz, D. A. Steigerwald, J. J. Wierer, N. F. Gardner, J. Sun, S. A. Stockman, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, R. S. Kern, and F. M. Steranka, "Performance of high-power AlInGaN light emitting diodes," Physica Status Solidi a-Applied Research, vol. 188, pp. 15-21, Nov 2001. [43] S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, "Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 110, pp. 123102-123102-5, 2011. [44] O.W. Käding, H. Skurk, and E. Matthias, " Thermal diffusivities of thin films measured by transient thermal gratings," Journal of Physics, vol. 4, pp. 619-622, 1994. [45] K. Fujii, S. H. Yokota, and N. Shōhata," Properties of Diamondlike Carbon Films," MRS proceedings, vol. 75, pp. 765, 1986.
摘要: 本論文將化學無電鍍金方法應用在氮化鎵發光二極體之金屬接合製程中,並且加入類鑽碳膜到元件結構中,接著利用雷射剝離技術使藍寶石基板與氮化鎵薄膜分離並轉移至矽基板,製備垂直導通氮化鎵發光二極體,探討元件之材料與光電特性,以及使用類鑽碳膜對於元件之散熱性質的影響,並與無類鑽碳膜之垂直導通發光二極體及一般傳統水平發光二極體做比較。在垂直導通發光二極體製程中,先在氮化鎵磊晶膜上鍍製金屬鏡面並且經過熱處理,然後依序使用濺鍍法成長類鑽碳膜及化學無電鍍方式成長金薄膜。 在適當的參數調整下之金薄膜表面可提供較佳的粗糙鍍與均勻性,有助於在溫度220°C下與金屬銦完成擴散接合之步驟。 垂直導通發光二極體完成金屬接合製程後,並經由切割封裝後完成元件製作。元件在700 mA高電流注入下,垂直發光二極體加入類鑽碳膜之元件輸出功率為461 mW,發光效率為16%,其發光效率相較於無類鑽碳膜之結構的13.9%增加約3%,也比一般水平結構的8.5%增加約8%;從表面溫度量測結果得知,具有類鑽碳膜結構之垂直發光二極體的表面溫度為61°C,而無類鑽碳膜結構與一般水平發光二極體的表面溫度約為70.5°C與83.2°C。此外,在熱阻分析的結果發現,有類鑽碳膜結構之垂直發光二極體的熱阻為13.2 K/W,明顯低於無類鑽碳膜結構的19.1 K/W及水平發光二極體的22 K/W。 實驗結果顯示,以化學無電鍍方法成長之金薄膜可使晶圓達到接合的目的,並且將具良好散熱特性的類鑽碳膜加入垂直發光二極體結構中,當元件在大電流操作下,可有效將元件表面的高溫廢熱導出並且可以維持良好之光電特性與熱穩定性。
In this thesis, the vertical type GaN LEDs have been fabricated by metal bonding process using electroless plating gold (Au) and deposition of a diamond like carbon (DLC) thin film incorporated in the device. To fabricate thin GaN LEDs device, the sapphire substrate was removed by laser lift-off technique and the LED structure was transferred to Si wafer. For vertical LED with DLC layer, the material characteristics of bonding layer, performances of device and thermal analyses have been investigated. Moreover, the characterizations were compared with those of vertical LED without DLC layer and conventional lateral LED. For the fabrication of vertical type GaN LED, a mirror was grown on epilayer structures and annealed. Then a DLC layer deposited by sputtering and an Au layer grown by electroless plating were prepared in sequence on the mirror. Furthermore, the Au layer and In/Au layer on Si wafer were interdiffusion to form Au/In/Au layer at 220 �C. It indicated that the Au layer with good uniformity and roughness was helpful to bond with In/Au layer. At an injection current of 700 mA, the output power and light extraction efficiency of vertical LED with DLC layer were 461 mW and 16%, respectively. Moreover, the light extraction efficiencies of vertical LED without DLC layer and conventional lateral LED were measured to be 13.9% and 8.5% (@ 700 mA), respectively. It reveals that the vertical LED with DLC layer has a significant improvement in the light extraction efficiency. For the vertical LEDs with and without DLC layer and conventional lateral LED, the surface temperatures were measured to be 61, 70.5 and 83.2 �C, respectively. Meanwhile, the thermal resistances of these samples were 13.2, 19.1 and 22 K/W, respectively. It indicates that the LED device with DLC layer exhibits high performance in heat dissipation, resulting in the good electro-optical property and thermal stability.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/11379
其他識別: U0005-2808201218495100
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2808201218495100
Appears in Collections:材料科學與工程學系

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.