Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/13086
標題: 評估市售寧素製劑處理Eimeria tenella卵囊對雞之免疫效能
Evaluation of the immunization effects of Eimeria tenella oocysts treated with commercial neem in chicken
作者: 施國偉
See, Koh-Vi
關鍵字: neem
寧素
Eimeria tenella
chicken
Eimeria tenella
出版社: 獸醫學系暨研究所
引用: 1. 李永基。原蟲。家畜寄生蟲學。第二版。藝軒圖書出版社。台北。台灣。中華民國。263-280。1998。 2. 林孟穎。寧素對雞盲腸型球蟲之生物效應。碩士論文。國立中興大學獸醫學系。台中市。中華民國。2009。 3. 陳運造。殺蟲植物的耀眼新星-印楝。苗栗區農業專訊第十九期。2002。 4. 費昌勇。雞艾美屬球蟲之病因學、病理學及免疫學(上)。中國畜牧雜誌 27: 113-117。1995。 5. 劉賢勇,索勛。雞球蟲病及其控制策略。中國農業科技導報。8:31-37。2006。 6. Allen PC, Fetterer RH. Recent advances in biology and immunobiology of Eimeria species and in diagnosis and control of infection with these coccidian parasites of poultry. Clin Microbiol Rev 15: 58-65, 2002. 7. Atawodi SE, Atawodi JC. Azadirachta indica (neem): a plant of multiple biological and pharmacological activities. Phytochem Rev 8: 601-620, 2009. 8. Bagchi D, Stohs SJ, Downs BW, Bagchi M, Preuss HG. Cytotoxicity and oxidative mechanisms of different forms of chromium. Toxicology 180: 5-22, 2002. 9. Biswas K, Chattopadhyay RK, Banerjee U, Bandyopadhyay U. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Cur Sci 82: 1336–1345, 2002. 10. Biu AA, Yusuf SD, Rabo JS. Use of neem (Azadirachta indica) aqueous extract as a treatment for poultry coccidiosis in Borno state, Nigeria. African Sci 7: 147-153, 2006. 11. Butterworth JH, Morgan ED. Isolation of a substance that suppresses feeding in locust. J Chem Soc Chem Commum 1: 23–24, 1968. 12. Canning EU, Morgan K. DNA synthesis, reduction and elimination during life cycles of the eimeriine coccidian, Eimeria tenella, and the hemogregarine, Hepatozoon domerguei. Exp Parasitol 38: 217-227, 1975. 13. Chapman HD. Biochemical, genetic and applies aspects of drug resisrance in Eimeria parasites of the fowl. Avian pathol 28: 221-244, 1997. 14. Chapman HD, Cherry TE, Danforth HD, Richards G, Shirley MW, Williams RB. Sustainable coccidiosis control in poultry production: the role of live vaccines. Int J Parasitol 32: 617-629, 2002. 15. Cornelissen JB, Swinkels WJ, Boersma WA, Rebel JM. Host response to simultaneous infections with Eimeria acervulina, maxima and tenella: A cumulation of single responses. Vet Parasitol 162: 58-66, 2009. 16. Crane MS, Murray PK, Gnozzio MJ, MacDonald TT. Passive protection of chickens against Eimeria tenella infection by monoclonal antibody. Infect Immun 56: 972-976, 1988. 17. Daszak P. Zoite migration during infection: parasite adaptation to host defences. Parasitol Today 15: 67-72, 1999. 18. Edgar SA. Effect of temperature on the sporulation of oocysts of the protozoan Eimeria tenella. Trans Am Microsc Soc 73: 237– 242, 1954. 19. Findly RC, Roberts SJ, Hayday AC. Dynamic response of murine gut intraepithelial T cells after infection by the coccidian parasite Eimeria. Eur J Immunol 23: 2557-2564, 1993. 20. Garg R, Banerjee DP, Gupta SK. Immune responses in chickens against Eimeria tenella sporozoite antigen. Vet Parasitol 81: 1-10, 1999. 21. Gilbert JM, Fuller AL, Scott TC, McDougald LR. Biological effects of gamma-irradiation on laboratory and field isolates of Eimeria tenella (protozoa; coccidian). Parasitol Res 84: 437-441, 1998. 22. Gómez-Verduzco G, Cortes-Cuevas A, López-Coello C, Avila-González E, Nava GM. Dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide enhances neonatal immune responses in chickens during natural exposure to Eimeria spp. Acta Vet Scand 51: 11, 2009. 23. Govindadachari TR, Suresh G, Gopalakrishnan G, Banumathy B, Masilamani S. Identification of antifungal compounds from the seed oil of Azadirachta indica. Phytoparasitica 26: 109-116, 1998. 24. Inagaki-Ohara K, Dewi FN, Hisaeda H, Smith AL, Jimi F, Miyahira M, Abdel-Aleem AS, Horii Y, Nawa Y. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes sustain the epithelial barrier function against Eimeria vermiformis infection. Infect Immun 74: 5292-5301, 2006. 25. Jarvis AP, Johnson S, Morgan ED. Stability of the natural insecticide azadirachtin in aqueous and organic solvents. Pestic Sci 53: 217–222, 1998. 26. Jeurissen SH, Claassen E, Boonstra-Blom AG, Vervelde L, Marga Janse E. Immunocytochemical techniques to investigate the pathogenesis of infectious micro-organisms and the concurrent immune response of the host. Dev Comp Immunol 24: 141-151, 2000. 27. Johnson J, Reid WM. Anticoccidial drugs: lesion scoring techniques in battery and floor-pen experiments with chickens. Exp Parasitol 28: 30– 36, 1970. 28. Joyner LP, Norton CC. A comparison oftwolaboratory strains of Eimeria tenella. Parasitology 59: 907-913, 1969. 29. Kalayarasan S, Sriram N, Sureshkumar A, Sudhandiran G. Chromium (VI)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis is reduced by garlic and its derivative S-allylcysteine through the activation of Nrf2 in the hepatocytes of Wistar rats.J Appl Toxicol 28: 908-919, 2008. 30. Kim CH, Lillehoj HS, Bliss TW, Keeler CL Jr, Hong YH, Park DW, Yamage M, Min W, Lillehoj EP. Construction and application of an avian intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte cDNA microarray (AVIELA) for gene expression profiling during Eimeria maxima infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 124: 341-354, 2008. 31. Kheysin YM. Sporulation of oocysts and their survival in the external environment. In: Todd KS. Ed. Life cycles of coccidia of domestic animals. University Park Press., UK. 149–177, 1972. 32. Kumar L, Parmar BS. Effect of emulsion size and shelf life of azadirachtin A on the bioeficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.) emulsifiable concentrates. J Agric Food Chem 48: 3666-3672, 2000. 33. Levine ND. The Apicomplexa and the coccidian proper. In Protozoan parasites of domestic animals and of man. 2nd ed. Burgess Publishing Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 236-243, 1973. 34. Ley SV, Abad-Somovilla A, Anderson JC, Ayats C, Bänteli R, Beckmann E, Boyer A, Brasca MG, Brice A, Broughton HB, Burke BJ, Cleator E, Craig D, Denholm AA, Denton RM, Durand-Reville T, Gobbi LB, Göbel M, Gray BL, Grossmann RB, Gutteridge CE, Hahn N, Harding SL, Jennens DC, Jennens L, Lovell PJ, Lovell HJ, de la Puente ML, Kolb HC, Koot WJ, Maslen SL, McCusker CF, Mattes A, Pape AR, Pinto A, Santafianos D, Scott JS, Smith SC, Somers AQ, Spilling CD, Stelzer F, Toogood PL, Turner RM, Veitch GE, Wood A, Zumbrunn C. The synthesis of azadirachtin: a potent insect antifeedant. Chemistry 14: 10683-10704, 2008. 35. Li MH, Ooi HK. Effect of chromium compounds on sporulation of Eimeria piriformis oocysts. Exp Anim 57: 79–83, 2008. 36. Lillehoj HS, Choi KD. Recombinant chicken interferon-gamma-mediated inhibition of Eimeria tenella development in vitro and reduction of oocyst production and body weight loss following Eimeria acervulina challenge infection. Avian Dis 42: 307-314, 1998. 37. Lillehoj HS, Lillehoj EP. Avian coccidiosis: a review of acquired intestinal immunity and vaccination strategies. Avian Dis 44: 408–425, 2000. 38. Lindsay DS, Blagburn BL. Antiprotozoan drugs. In: Adams HR. Ed. Veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics. 7thed. Iowa State University Press., U.S.A., 962-973, 1998. 39. Long PL. Development ( schizogony ) of Eimeria tenella in the liver of chickens treated with corticosteroid. Nature 225: 290-291, 1970. 40. Long PL. Eimeria tenella: reproduction, pathogenicity and immunogenicity of a strain maintained in chick embryos by serial passage. J Comp Pathol 82: 429-437, 1972. 41. Long PL. Further studies on the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of an embryo-adapted strain of Eimeria tenella. Avian Pathol 3: 255-268, 1974. 42. Long PL, Millard BJ. Studies on site and site specificity of Eimeria praecox, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina in chickens. Parasitology 73: 327-336, 1976. 43. McDonald V, Shirley MW. Past and future: vaccination against Eimeria. Parasitology 136: 147714-89, 2009. 44. McLoughlin DK. The influence of dexamethasone on attempts to transmit Eimeria meleagrimitis to chickens and E. tenella to turkeys. J Protozool 16: 145-148, 1969. 45. Mordue AJ, Blackwell A. Azadirachtin: an update. J Insect Physiol 39: 903-924, 1993. 46. Mirsky N. Glucose tolerance factor reduces blood glucose and free fatty acids levels in diabetic rats. J Inorg Biochem 49: 123-128, 1993. 47. Patlolla AK, Barnes C, Yedjou C, Velma VR, Tchounwou PB. Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and antioxidant enzyme activity induced by hexavalent chromium in Sprague-Dawley rats. Environ Toxicol 24: 66-73, 2009. 48. Pogonka T, Klotz C, Kovács F, Lucius R. A single dose of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium induces specific humoral immune responses against heterologous Eimeria tenella antigens in chicken. Int J Parasitol 33: 81-88, 2003. 49. Rose ME. Immunity to coccidiosis: maternal transfer in Eimeria maxima infections. Parasitology 65: 273-282, 1972. 50. Rose ME, Hesketh P. Immunity to coccidiosis: stages of the life-cycle of E. maxima which induce, and are affected by, the response of the host. Parasitology. 73: 25-37, 1976. 51. Sharma NN, Reid WM. Successful infection of chickens after parenteral inoculation of oocysts of Eimeria spp. J Parasitol 48: 33, 1962. 52. Shirley MW, Long PL. Control of coccidiosis in chickens immunization with live vaccines. In: Long PL Ed. Coccidiosis of Man and Domestic Animals. Boca Raton: CRC Press., UK. 321–341, 1990. 53. Shirley MW, McDonald V, Ballingall S. Eimeria spp. from the chicken: from merozoites to oocysts in embryonated eggs. Parasitology 83: 259–267, 1981. 54. Sidhu OP, Behl HM. Seasonal variations in azadirachtins in seeds of Azadirachta indica. Curr Sci 70: 1084−1086, 1996. 55. Smith NC, Wallach M, Miller CM, Morgenstern R, Braun R, Eckert J. Maternal transmission of immunity to Eimeria maxima: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of protective antibodies induced by infection. Infect Immun 62: 1348-1357, 1994. 56. Stark JD, Walter JF. Persistence of azadirachtin A and B in soil: Effects of temperature and microbial activity. J Environ Sci Health, Part B. 30: 685−698, 1995. 57. Stohs SJ, Bagchi D, Hassoun EA, Bagchi M. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of chromium and cadmium ions. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 20: 77–88, 2001. 58. Swaggerty CL, Genovese KJ, He H, Duke SE, Pevzner IY, Kogut MH. Broiler breeders with an efficient innate immune response are more resistant to Eimeria tenella. Poult Sci 90: 1014-1019, 2011. 59. Tewari DN. Monograph of Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.). Int. Book Distributors, Dehra Dun, India 1992. 60. Tipu AM, Pasha TN, Zulfiqar A. Comparative efficacy of salinomycin sodium and neem fruit (Azadirachta Indica) as additive anticoccidials in broilers. Int J Poult Sci 1: 91-93, 2002. 61. Toulah FH, Ismeel HA, Khan S. Effect of treatment with Neem (Azadirachta indica) compared with Baycox drug on the caecum of chicken experimentally infected with Eimeria tenella. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 40: 93-106, 2010. 62. Trees AJ, Karim MJ, McKellar SB, Carter SD. Eimeria tenella: local antibodies and interactions with the sporozoite surface. J Protozool 36: 326-333, 1989. 63. Veitch GE, Boyer A, Ley SV. The Azadirachtin Story. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 47: 9402-9429, 2008. 64. Vincent JB. The biochemistry of chromium. J Nutr 130: 715-718, 2000. 65. Wallach M. Role of antibody in immunity and control of chicken coccidiosis. Trends Parasitol 26: 382-387, 2010. 66. Wallach S. Clinical and biochemical aspects of chromium deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr 4: 107-120, 1985. 67. Williams RB. Epidemiological studies of coccidiosis in the domesticated fowl (Gallus gallus): I. The fate of ingested oocysts of Eimeria tenella during the prepatent period in susceptible chicks. Appl Parasitol 36: 83–89, 1995a. 68. Williams RB. Epidemiological studies of coccidiosis in the domesticated fowl (Gallus gallus): II. Physical condition and survival of Eimeria acervulina oocysts in poultry-house litter. Appl Parasitol 36: 90–96, 1995b. 69. Williams RB. Quantification of the crowding effect during infectionswith the seven Eimeria species of the domesticated fowl: its importance for experimental designs and the production of oocyst stocks. Int J Parasitol 31: 1056–69, 2001. 70. Williams RB. Anticoccidial vaccines for broiler chickens: pathways to success. Avian Pathol 31: 317-353, 2002. 71. Williams RB, Johnson JD, Andrews SJ. Anticoccidial vaccination of broiler chickens in various management programmes: relationship between oocyst accumulation in litter and the development of protective immunity. Vet Res Commun 24: 309–25, 2000. 72. Yun CH, Lillehoj HS. Intestinal immune responses to coccidiosis. Dev Comp Immunol 24: 303–324, 2000.
摘要: 雞之球蟲症是由Eimeria屬原蟲感染造成,是養雞事業中常見的寄生蟲性疾病。球蟲症造成的損失於臨床上可見雞隻體重減輕、飼料換肉率下降及高度的死亡率;於經濟上需花費鉅額的費用在球蟲的治療及預防。 本研究利用未芽胞化的E. tenella卵囊,將其置入0.2%由印度苦楝萃取之市售寧素製劑讓球蟲卵囊芽胞化,當這些E. tenella卵囊充分芽胞化後,將其以不同的劑量接種雞隻。兩週後,再用50,000顆2.5%重鉻酸鉀芽胞化的E. tenella卵囊進行攻毒實驗。結果顯示,0.2%市售寧素製劑不但可以讓球蟲卵囊芽胞化,經放置3個月後仍然具有感染能力。而在對雞隻之保護性免疫效果方面,可見雞隻接種經寧素製劑處理之芽胞化卵囊,其卵囊抑制指數、體重及增重的表現皆比攻毒後的陽性對照組來得好。 綜合上述,接種3,000顆寧素製劑處理組的雞隻,能使其得到較好的免疫保護力。此外,發現0.2%寧素對於雞球蟲卵囊的芽胞化效果良好,因此基於環境的保護,降低重金屬的污染,未來可以使用寧素來取代重鉻酸鉀,作為球蟲卵囊的孵化液。
Coccidiosis, caused by various apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria, is a common disease of commercially reared chickens. The major injures of coccidiosis include the reductive weight gain, poor feed-conversion, high levels of mortality, economic loss which is caused by the production losses and costs for treatment or prevention. In this study, unsporulated oocysts of E. tenella were treated with 0.2% commercial neem for sporulation and the chickens were then infected with different doses of treated sporulated oocysts. Two weeks later, all chickens were challenged with 50,000 wild-type E. tenella oocysts which were sporulated in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution. Results indicated that sporulation occurred in the 0.2% commercial neem and three months later the oocysts still possessed infectious activity. The result of immunoresponsitivity showed that the non-immunized positive group had lower reduction percentage in oocyst output, lighter body weight and lower weight gain compared with immunized groups. In summary, the group of chicken inoculated with neem-treated 3,000 oocysts has shown better recovering activity than other groups. In addition, neem shows high performance to sporulated E. tenella oocysts. The use of neem to sporulate could be a substitute for potassium dichromate in experimental infection model in the future, to reduce the risk of residual heavymetals on environment.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/13086
其他識別: U0005-2807201117073000
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2807201117073000
Appears in Collections:獸醫學系所

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.