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Effect of postpartum medical manipulation on reducing uterine bacterial contamination and improving reproductive performance in dairy cows
|引用:||1.林哲祺。染色法。引自：獸醫臨床細菌鑑定圖譜，國立中興大學附設家畜醫院編著。藝軒，台北，1-24，1984。 2.Battaglia DF, Bowen JM, Krasa HB, Thrun LA, Viguié, Karsch FJ. Endotoxin inhibits the reproductive neuroendocrine axis while stimulating adrenal steroids: a simultaneous view from hypophyseal portal and peripheral blood. Endocrinology 138: 4273-4281, 1997. 3.Battaglia DF, Krasa HB, Padmandvhan V, Viguié C, Karsch FJ. Endocrine alterations that underlie endotoxin-induced disruption of the follicular phase in ewes. Biol Reprod 62: 45-53, 2000. 4.Berardinelli JG, Joshi PS, Tauck SA. Postpartum resumption of ovarian cycling activity in first-calf suckled beef cows exposed to familiar or unfamiliar bulls. Ani Reprod Sci 90: 201-209, 2005. 5.Boos A, Janssen V, Mülling C. Proliferation and apoptosis in bovine placentomes during pregnancy and around induced and spontaneous partiuriton as well as in cows retaining the fetal membranes. Reprodition 126: 469-480, 2003. 6.Bruun JM, Ersbøll AK, Alban L. 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|摘要:||乳牛產後子宮細菌污染會造成子宮內膜炎，因而抑制乳牛產後早期卵巢濾泡功能，當牛隻發生胎衣滯留，則會引發更大量的子宮內細菌污染且併發子宮內膜炎，因而造成乳牛不易受胎。乳牛產褥期後透過外源性內泌素的給予，可減少觀察發情行為的勞力需求，並掌控牛隻發情及排卵時間。本研究目的為使用藥物處理模式降低乳牛產後子宮內細菌污染並增進接續的繁殖性能。實驗共使用60頭實驗牛隻，包括26頭產後正常牛隻 ( G1 )，並將34頭發生胎衣滯留牛隻分為兩組，G2組 ( n = 16 ) 給予ceftiofur治療，而G3組 ( n = 18 ) 以傳統治療方式處理。於分娩後第20與30天時，對所有G1組和隨機挑選8頭G2組牛隻進行子宮內採樣，採樣後並進行子宮藥物灌藥，且所有G1和G2牛隻並於預定時間注射外源性內泌素。結果顯示，G2和G3組發生胎衣滯留牛隻的懷孕天數顯著較G1組母牛短 ( 265.9 ± 4.4 天 vs. 279.0 ± 1.0 天，P < 0.01 )，其中43.3% ( 13/30 ) 牛隻的懷孕天數低於271天。由所有採樣牛隻中的8頭母牛，共分離出12株細菌，其中，4頭牛屬於G1組，共分離出7株細菌；4頭牛為G2組，共分離出5株細菌，且G2組在2次採樣的陽性比率由50.0%降至12.5%。而子宮內膜細胞學檢查呈現陽性牛隻同時皆為細菌學檢查陽性，且G2組在2次檢查的細胞學檢查陽性比率由50.0%降至25.0%。雖然分娩後第20天有11.7%受檢母牛出現膿樣陰道黏液，但至分娩後第30天時，大部分母牛 ( 91.2%，31/34 ) 之陰道呈現無黏液或清澈陰道黏液。超音波學之檢查結果顯示，G3組的產後第1次排卵天數顯著較G1和G2組拉長 ( 28.8 ± 3.1天 vs. 19.2 ± 0.9天，19 ± 1.6 天，P < 0.05 )。在繁殖性能方面，G2組之空胎期雖顯著較G1組延長 ( 130.5 ± 21.1 天 vs. 86.3 ± 8.2 天，P < 0.05 )，但是其懷孕率及懷孕所需人工授精次數與G1組並無差異。G3組的空胎期顯著較G1組和G2組延長 ( 270.3 ± 60.4 天vs. 86.3 ± 8.2 天，130.5 ± 21.1 天，P < 0.05 )，且分娩後150天內母牛懷孕率較低 ( 16.7% vs. 73.9%，43.8% )。此外，G3組的淘汰率較G1及G2組高 ( 27.8% vs. 11.5%，18.8% )。綜合上述結果，發生胎衣滯留牛隻的懷孕天數顯著較正常牛隻短，而若以oxytocin、ceftiofur和子宮灌藥可有效降低乳牛產後子宮內細菌量，並提早恢復卵巢活性，產褥期後再以外源性內泌素處理後，可有效增進接續的繁殖性能。|
Postpartum (pp) bacterial contamination in the uterus contributes to endometritis which may suppress ovarian follicle function in dairy cows. Retained placenta (RP) is mainly associated with greater bacterial contamination in the uterus and usually induces endometritis which causes infertility. Administration with exogenous hormone after puerperium can monitor estrus and the timing of ovulation with minor needs for estrus detection. The aim of this study was to use medical manipulation to diminish postpartum bacterial contamination in the uterus and improve subsequent reproductive performance in dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows were used for this study. Twenty-six normal postpartum cows were grouped as clinically healthy animals (G1), and 34 cows having RP were divided into treatment groups. Of these, 16 cows were treated with ceftiofur (G2), while the remaining 18 cows received traditional treatment (G3). Intrauterine samplings with a following infusion were performed in G1 and 8 of G2 on Day 20 and 30 pp, respectively. All animals in G1 and G2 were assigned to undergo exogenous hormonal manipulation at fixed time. The results indicated that the mean gestation period of cows with RP was significantly shorter than that in G1 (265.9 ± 4.4 vs. 279.0 ± 1.0 days, P < 0.01). Moreover, 43.3% of cows with RP had the gestation period below 271 days. The results of bacteriology indicated that twelve strains of bacteria, including 7 in G1 and 5 in G2, were isolated from 8 cows, half of them belonged to G1 and G2. Between two samplings, the proporation of positive bacteriology in G2 decreased from 50.0% to 12.5%. Additionally, cows with positive endometrial cytology coincided with the results of bacteriology. The proportion of positive endometrial cytology in G2 decreased from 50.0% to 25.0% between two samplings. There were 11.7% of cows with purulent vaginal discharge on Day 20 pp, but 91.2% of them were found having either no mucus or translucent mucus on Day 30 pp. Ultrasonography revealed that the days from calving to the first ovulation in G3 was significantly longer than that in G1 and G2 (28.8 ± 3.1 vs. 19.2 ± 0.9, 19 ± 1.6 days,P < 0.05). Comparison of reproductive performance indicated that the mean of days open in G3 was significantly longer than that in G1 and G2 (270.3 ± 60.4 vs. 86.3 ± 8.2 and 130.5 ± 21.1 days, P < 0.05), and the pregnancy rate within 150 days pp in G3 was lower than that in G1 and G2 (16.7% vs. 73.9% and 43.8%). The mean of days open in G2 was significantly longer than that in G1 (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in pregnancy rate and number of insemination between G1 and G2. Furthermore, the proportion of cows culled was higher in G3 than that in G1 and G2 ( 27.8% vs. 11.5% and 18.8% ). As a summary, the mean gestation period of cows with RP was significantly shorter than that in normal postpartum cows. Treatments with oxytocin, ceftiofur and intrauterine infusion were efficacious on reducing the bacterial density in the uterus and advancing the resumption of ovarian activities. In addition, exogenous hormonal manipulation after puerperium could improve subsequent reproductive performance. It was concluded that medical manipulation was efficacious on reducing postpartum bacterial contamination and improving subsequent reproductive performance in dairy cows.
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