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Investigation and Analysis of Diseases in Dairy Cows during Eight Weeks after Parturition in Taiwan
|引用:||沈永紹｡ 體液﹑電解質及酸鹼平衡｡ 獸醫實驗診斷學提要｡ 第四版｡ 華香園出版社, 台北｡ 中華民國｡ pp. 424-427, 2002｡ 吳永惠｡ 代謝障礙性疾病, 消化系統疾病｡ 牛病學｡ 藝軒圖書出版社, 台北｡ 中華民國｡ pp. 483-486, 504-510, 552-556, 1989｡ 吳永惠﹑劉世賢｡ 消化系統｡ 牛臨床檢查技術｡ 藝軒圖書出版社, 台北｡ 中華民國｡ pp. 239-246, 1998｡ 林岳賢｡ 乳牛分娩後二十週內卵巢﹑子宮活性及血清生化物質濃度的變化｡ 碩士論文｡ 國立中興大學獸醫學研究所｡ 台中｡ 中華民國｡ 1994｡ Bartlett PC, Kirk JH, Wilke MA, Kaneene JB, Mather EC. Metritis complex in Michigan Holstein-Friesian cattle: incidence, descriptive epidemiology and estimated economic impact. Prev Vet Med 4: 235-248, 1986. Bertics SJ, Grummer RR, Cadorniga-Valino C, Stoddard E. Effect of prepartum dry matter intake on liver triglyceride concentration and early lactation. J Dairy Sci 75: 1914-1922, 1992. Braun U. Ultrasonography in gastrointestinal disease in cattle. Vet J 166: 112-124, 2003. Braun U, Flückiger M, Götz M. Comparison of ultrasonographic and radiographic findings in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Vet Rec 135: 470-478, 1994. Braun U, Gansohr B, Flückiger M. 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|摘要:||乳牛發生疾病的時機，在分娩之後較其他時期更為常見，這些產後疾病包括繁殖與代謝性障礙，如胎衣滯留、子宮炎、乳熱、酮病、第四胃異位、蹄病以及創傷性蜂巢胃炎和乳房炎等。本報告祈藉由調查的方式，了解台灣乳牛產後疾病的種類及盛行率，並且進一步分析疾病間以及疾病與各因子間之相關性。本實驗於2004年12月至2006年6月間，由國立中興大學獸醫教學醫院出診病例，利用問卷調查方式記錄臨床各項資料，並且進行血液及血清生化學檢測。期間自18個牧場中蒐集了82個病例，包括40個為單純性疾病和42個為併發或繼發其他疾病。結果共診斷出有15種疾病，被診斷最多的疾病依序為創傷性蜂巢胃炎21.7% (30/138)、酮病18.1% (25/138)、第四胃異位15.9% (22/138)、胎衣滯留12.3% (17/138)、其他或未知疾病9.4% (13/138)及臨床型乳房炎8.7% (12/138)。發病牛隻中有助產的有 24 頭，其中大多為第1次分娩(66.7%)；分析各項數據結果發現，body condition score (BCS)與病程天數和脫水有關(P<0.05)，治療恢復情形與年齡和瘤胃蠕動有關(P<0.05)。產後的疾病分析結果顯示，子宮炎時體溫(39.0±0.2℃)沒有偏高之情形，患有乳熱牛隻的BCS (3.63±0.38)和胎衣滯留病牛的BCS (3.62±0.16)均有偏高之情形；因罹患創傷性蜂巢胃炎而淘汰的牛隻與其年齡和血中fibrinogen平均值有相關性(P<0.05)，而且其血清平均total plasma protein値(5.75±0.19 g/dL)與fibrinogen平均濃度(566.7±73.0 mg/dL)皆未高於正常參考值，但可見血中白血球平均數目(13.8±1.1×103/dL)有高於正常參考值。併發之創傷性蜂巢胃炎、第四胃異位和胎衣滯留的病牛血清鈣離子濃度比單純性創傷性蜂巢胃炎、第四胃異位和胎衣滯留的病牛明顯偏低。創傷性蜂巢胃炎發生與第四胃異位有相關性(P<0.01)，第四胃異位發生與酮病(P<0.001)和創傷性蜂巢胃炎有相關性(P<0.01)，胎衣滯留發生與酮病有相關性(P<0.05)。82個病例在治療後恢復或改善的有63個(76.8%)，淘汰或死亡的有19個(23.2%)。本實驗因為出診所診斷及蒐集之病例，故無法代表台灣泌乳牛普遍發生疾病之情形，但還是可由調查結果發現，乳牛創傷性蜂巢胃炎的診斷、治療與預防在台灣牧場之間已經越來越重要。有鑑於台灣乳牛罹患產後疾病之高淘汰率，我們建議臨床大動物獸醫師在現場看診時，除了應該清楚詢問病歷之外，也需親自對病牛詳細檢查，再加上牛隻BCS的判定和血液及血清生化學檢查結果，才可以有效且正確地對病牛診斷和治療。|
Many bovine diseases are associated with postpartum than other periods in dairy cows. Postpartum diseases include reproductive and metabolic disorders, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, milk fever, ketosis, displaced abomasum (DA), laminitis, traumatic reticulitis (TR), and mastitis et al. Our objectives of this study were to investigate the types and prevalence of postpartum diseases and to analyze the interrelationships and effected factors of diseases in dairy cows in Taiwan. These data were obtained by veterinarians of Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, National Chung Hsing University through a questionnaire administered from December 2004 to June 2006. There were totally 82 affected cows collected from 18 dairy herds which included 40 simple cases and 42 complex cases. The hematological and serum chemistry examination were also carried in the laboratory. The results showed that there were 15 different postpartum diseases diagnosed by veterinarians, the most diseases were diagnosed as TR 21.7% (30/138), ketosis 18.1% (25/138), DA 15.9% (22/138), RP 12.3% (17/138)、others and unknown 9.4% (13/138) and clinical mastitis 8.7% (12/138), respectively. There were 24 affected cows which need assistance and most (66.7%) of them had the first parity. The duration of illness and dehydration of affected cows were associated (P<0.05) with their body condition score (BCS). Affected cow’s age and their rumination activity were associated with recovery situation post treatment (P<0.05). The averaged temperature of cases with metritis (39.0±0.2℃) was not higher than normal ranges. The average BCS of affected cows with milk fever (3.63±0.38) and with RP (3.62±0.16) were higher than other cases. We could also find the averaged cow’s age and fibrinogen were associated (P<0.05) with slaughtered cows having TR. And their average total serum protein (5.75±0.19 g/dL) and fibrinogen (566.7±73.0 mg/dL) were not higher than normal range, but white blood cell (WBC) (13.8±1.1×103/dL) was higher than normal range. The average serum calcium concentrations of cows in complex cases with TR, DA and RP were manifested lower than simple case. There was closed relationship between TR cases and DA cases (P<0.01). The results also indicated that the cases of ketosis and TR were associated with DA (P<0.01), and ketosis cases were associated with RP cases (P<0.05). There were finally 63 (76.8%) affected cows which became recovery or progress and 19 (23.2%) cows were slaughtered or dead after our treatment. Although our results of investigation with postpartum diseases may not play a represented role in dairy cows in Taiwan, we could find that the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of traumatic reticulitis are more important than those in previous report. Since the higher slaughter rate of cows with postpartum diseases in Taiwan, we suggest for clinical veterinarians to pay more attention about case history and clinical signs of patient cows, as well as its BCS evaluation, hematological and serum biochemistry examination for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.
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