Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 第二環氧化酵素與芳香環轉化脢在犬乳腺瘤之表現
Cyclooxygenase-2 and Aromatase Expression in Canine Mammary Tumors
作者: 盧米珍
Lu, Mi-Chen
關鍵字: Cyclooxygenase-2
mammary tumors
出版社: 獸醫學系暨研究所
引用: Misdorp W. Tumors of the mammary gland. In: Meuten DJ ed. Tumors in domestic animals 4th d. Blackwell publishing Co. Iowa State Press, 575-606, 2002. Rutteman GR, Withrow SJ, MacEwen EG.. Tumors of the mammary gland. In : Withrow SJ, MacEwen EG., eds. Small animal clinical oncology. 3rd ed. WB Saunders Co, Philadephia, 455-477, 2001. Agarwal VR, Bulun SE, Leitch M, Rohrich R, Simpson ER. Use of alternative promoters to express the aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) gene in breast adipose tissues of cancer-free and breast cancer patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 81:3843-3849, 1996. Ahern TE, Bird RC, Bird AE, Wolfe LG. Expression of the oncogene c-erbB-2 in canine mammary cancers and tumor-derived cell lines. Am J Vet Res. 57:693-696, 1996. Benson J, Lev M, Grand CG. Enhancement of mammary fibroadenomas in the female rat by a high fat diet. Cancer Res. 16:135-137, 1956. Brodie AM, Lu Q, Long BJ, Fulton A, Chen T, Macpherson N, DeJong PC, Blankenstein MA, Nortier JW, Slee PH, van de Ven J, van Gorp JM, Elbers JR, Schipper ME, Blijham GH, Thijssen JH. Aromatase and COX-2 expression in human breast cancers. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 79:41-47, 2001. Bostock DE, Moriarty J, Crocker J. Correlation between histologic diagnosis mean nucleolar organizer region count and prognosis in canine mammary tumors. Vet Pathol. 29:381-385, 1992. Brunelle M, Sartin EA, Wolfe LG, Sirois J, Dore M. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in normal and neoplastic canine mammary cell lines. Breast cancer Res Treat 98:115-120, 2006. Capone ML, Tacconelli S, Sciulli MG, Patrignani P. Clinical pharmacology of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 16:49-58, 2003. Chang SC, Chang CC, Chang TJ, Wong ML. Prognostic factors associated with survival two years after surgery in dogs with malignant mammary tumors: 79 cases (1998-2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 227:1625-1629, 2005. Chang SH, Liu CH, Conway R, Han DK, Nithipatikom K, Trifan OC, Lane TF, Hla T. Role of prostaglandin E2-dependent angiogenic switch in cyclooxygenase 2-induced breast cancer progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 101:591-596, 2004. Chen D, Reierstad S, Lin Z, Lu M, Brooks C, Li N, Innes J, Bulun SE. Prostaglandin E(2) induces breast cancer related aromatase promoters via activation of p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase in adipose fibroblasts. Cancer Res. 67:8914-8922, 2007. Chen S, Itoh T, Wu K, Zhou D, Yang C. Transcriptional regulation of aromatase expression in human breast tissue. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 83:93-9, 2002. Cleary MP, Grande JP, Juneja SC, Maihle NJ. Diet-induced obesity and mammary tumor development in MMTV-neu female mice. Nutr Cancer. 50:174-180, 2004. Cohen D, Reif JS, Brodey RS, Keiser H. Epidemiological analysis of the most prevalent sites and types of canine neoplasia observed in a veterinary hospital. Cancer Res. 34:2859-2868, 1974. Davies G, Martin LA, Sacks N, Dowsett M. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), aromatase and breast cancer: a possible role for COX-2 inhibitors in breast cancer chemoprevention. Ann Oncol. 13:669-678, 2002. Denkert C, Winzer KJ, Hauptmann S. Prognostic impact of cyclooxygenase-2 in breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer. 4:428-433, 2004. Denkert C, Winzer KJ, Müller BM, Weichert W, Pest S, Köbel M, Kristiansen G, Reles A, Siegert A, Guski H, Hauptmann S. Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is a negative prognostic factor for disease free survival and overall survival in patients with breast carcinoma. Cancer. 97:2978-2987, 2003. Díaz-Cruz ES, Shapiro CL, Brueggemeier RW. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors suppress aromatase expression and activity in breast cancer cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 90:2563-2570, 2005. Donnay I, Rauïs J, Wouters-Ballman P, Devleeschouwer N, Leclercq G, Verstegen JP. Receptors for oestrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factor in normal and tumorous canine mammary tissues. J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 47:501-512, 1993. Dore M, Lanthier I, Sirois J. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in canine mammary tumors. Vet Pathol. 40:207-212, 2003. Dorn CR, Taylor DO, Frye FL, Hibbard HH. Survey of animal neoplasms in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California. I. Methodology and description of cases. J Natl Cancer Inst. 40:295-305, 1968. Dubois RN, Abramson SB, Crofford L, Gupta RA, Simon LS, Van De Putte LB, Lipsky PE. Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease. FASEB J. 12:1063-1073, 1998. Eberhart CE, Coffey RJ, Radhika A, Giardiello FM, Ferrenbach S, DuBois RN. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 gene expression in human colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Gastroenterology. 107:1183-1188, 1994. Else RW, Hannant D. Some epidemiological aspects of mammary neoplasia in the bitch. Vet Rec. 104:296-304, 1979. Esteban JM, Warsi Z, Haniu M, Hall P, Shively JE, Chen S. Detection of intratumoral aromatase in breast carcinomas. An immunohistochemical study with clinicopathologic correlation. Am J Pathol. 140:337-343, 1992. Fidler IJ, Brodey RS. The biological behavior of canine mammary neoplasms. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 151:1311-1318, 1967. Garavito RM, DeWitt DL. The cyclooxygenase isoforms: structural insights into the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Biochim Biophys Acta.1441:278-287, 1999. Gierse JK, Staten NR, Casperson GF, Koboldt CM, Trigg JS, Reitz BA, Pierce JL, Seibert K. Cloning, expression, and selective inhibition of canine cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. Vet Ther. 3:270-280, 2002. Grösch S, Maier TJ, Schiffmann S, Geisslinger G. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-independent anticarcinogenic effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 98:736-747, 2006. Gupta S, Srivastava M, Ahmad N, Bostwick DG, Mukhtar H. Over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human prostate adenocarcinoma. Prostate. 42:73-78, 2000. Hampe JF, Misdorp W. Tumours and dysplasias of the mammary gland. Bull World Health Organ. 50:111-133, 1974. Harris RC, McKanna JA, Akai Y, Jacobson HR, Dubois RN, Breyer MD. Cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with the macula densa of rat kidney and increases with salt restriction. J Clin Invest. 94:2504-2510, 1994. Harris RE, Beebe-Donk J, Alshafie GA. Reduction in the risk of human breast cancer by selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. BMC cancer 6:27, 2006. Heller DA, Clifford CA, Goldschmidt MH, Holt DE, Shofer FS, Smith A, Sorenmo KU. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is associated with histologic tumor type in canine mammary carcinoma. Vet Pathol 42:776-780, 2005. Hellmén E, Bergström R, Holmberg L, Spångberg IB, Hansson K, Lindgren A. Prognostic factors in canine mammary tumors: a multivariate study of 202 consecutive cases. Vet Pathol. 30:20-27, 1993. Hellmén E, Lindgren A, Linell F, Matsson P, Nilsson A. Comparison of histology and clinical variables to DNA ploidy in canine mammary tumors. Vet Pathol. 25:219-226, 1988. Hla T, Bishop-Bailey D, Liu CH, Schaefers HJ, Trifan OC. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 isoenzymes. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 31:551-557, 1999. Hsu AL, Ching TT, Wang DS, Song X, Rangnekar VM, Chen CS. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib induces apoptosis by blocking Akt activation in human prostate cancer cells independently of Bcl-2. J Biol Chem. 275:11397-11403, 2000. Hsu WL, Huang HM, Liao JW, Wong ML, Chang SC. Increased survival in dogs with malignant mammary tumours overexpressing HER-2 protein and detection of a silent single nucleotide polymorphism in the canine HER-2 gene. Vet J. PMID: 18061495, 2007 Kelly LM, Hill AD, Kennedy S, Connolly EM, Ramanath R, Teh S, Dijkstra B, Purcell R, McDermott EW, O''Higgins N. Lack of prognostic effect of Cox-2 expression in primary breast cancer on short-term follow-up. Eur J Surg Oncol. 29:707-710, 2003. Khan KN, Knapp DW, Denicola DB, Harris RK. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 61:478-481, 2000. Knapp DW, Richardson RC, Chan TC, Bottoms GD, Widmer WR, DeNicola DB, Teclaw R, Bonney PL, Kuczek T. Piroxicam therapy in 34 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. J Vet Intern Med. 8:273-278, 1994. Langova V, Mutsaers AJ, Phillips B, Straw R. Treatment of eight dogs with nasal tumours with alternating doses of doxorubicin and carboplatin in conjunction with oral piroxicam. Aust Vet J. 82:676-680, 2004. Lee CH, Kim WH, Lim JH, Kang MS, Kim DY, Kweon OK. Mutation and overexpression of p53 as a prognostic factor in canine mammary tumors. J Vet Sci. 5:63-69, 2004. Lu J, Li H, Cao D, Di G, Wu J, Sheng K, Han Q, Shen Z, Shao Z. Clinical significance of aromatase protein expression in axillary node negative breast cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 133:401-409, 2007. Mahendroo MS, Mendelson CR, Simpson ER. Tissue-specific and hormonally controlled alternative promoters regulate aromatase cytochrome P450 gene expression in human adipose tissue. J Biol Chem. 268:19463-19470, 1993. Marinelli L, Gabai G, Wolfswinkel J, Mol JA. Mammary steroid metabolizing enzymes in relation to hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in the dog. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 92: 167-173, 2004. Martin de las Mulas J, Ordás J, Millán Y, Fernández-Soria V, Ramón y Cajal S. Oncogene HER-2 in canine mammary gland carcinomas: an immunohistochemical and chromogenic in situ hybridization study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 80:363-367, 2003. Martin PM, Cotard M, Mialot JP, André F, Raynaud JP. Animal models for hormone-dependent human breast cancer. Relationship between steroid receptor profiles in canine and feline mammary tumors and survival rate. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 12:13-17, 1984. Mehta RG, Moon RC. Characterization of effective chemopreventive agents in mammary gland in vitro using an initiation-promotion protocol. Anticancer Res. 11:593-596, 1991. Miki Y, Suzuki T, Tazawa C, Yamaguchi Y, Kitada K, Honma S, Moriya T, Hirakawa H, Evans DB, Hayashi S, Ohuchi N, Sasano H. Aromatase localization in human breast cancer tissues: possible interactions between intratumoral stromal and parenchymal cells. Cancer Res. 67:3945-3954, 2007. Misdorp W, Hart AA. Prognostic factors in canine mammary cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 56:779-786, 1976. Millanta F, Citi S, Della Santa D, Porciani M, Poli A. COX-2 expression in canine and feline invasive mammary carcinomas: correlation with clinicopathological features and prognostic molecular markers. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 98:115-120, 2006. Moe L. Population-based incidence of mammary tumours in some dog breeds. J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 57:439-443, 2001. Mohammed SI, Knapp DW, Bostwick DG, Foster RS, Khan KN, Masferrer JL, Woerner BM, Snyder PW, Koki AT. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. Cancer Res. 59:5647-50, 1999. Mol JA, Selman PJ, Sprang EP, van Neck JW, Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis MA. The role of progestins, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF-binding proteins in the normal and neoplastic mammary gland of the bitch: a review. J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 51:339-344, 1997. Morris JS, Dobson JM, Bostock DE, O''Farrell E. Effect of ovariohysterectomy in bitches with mammary neoplasms. Vet Rec. 142:656-658, 1998. Mulligan RM. Mammary cancer in the dog: a study of 120 cases. Am J Vet Res. 36:1391-1396, 1975. Needleman P, Turk J, Jakschik BA, Morrison AR, Lefkowith JB. Arachidonic acid metabolism. Annu Rev Biochem. 55:69-102, 1986. Oliveira VM, Piato S, Silva MA. Correlation of cyclooxygenase-2 and aromatase immunohistochemical expression in invasive ductal carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ, and adjacent normal epithelium. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 95:235-241, 2006. O''Neill GP, Ford-Hutchinson AW. Expression of mRNA for cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in human tissues. FEBS Lett. 330:156-160, 1993. Otto JC, Smith WL. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthases-1 and -2. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal. 12:139-156, 1995. Owen LN. A comparative study of canine and human breast cancer. Invest Cell Pathol. 2:257-275, 1979. Pérez Alenza D, Rutteman GR, Peña L, Beynen AC, Cuesta P. Relation between habitual diet and canine mammary tumors in a case-control study. J Vet Intern Med. 12:132-139, 1998. Priester WA, Mantel N. Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst. 47:1333-1344, 1971. Queiroga FL, Alves A, Pires I, Lopes C. Expression of Cox-1 and Cox-2 in canine mammary tumours. J Comp Pathol. 136:177-185, 2007. Queiroga FL, Perez-Alenza MD, Silvan G, Pena L, Lopes C, Illera JC. Cox-2 levels in canine mammary tumors, including inflammatory mammary carcinoma: clinicopathological features and prognostic significance. Anticancer Res 25:4269-4276, 2005. Ranger GS, Jewell A, Thomas V, Mokbel K. Elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ has no correlation with established prognostic markers. J Surg Oncol. 88:100-103, 2004. Richards JA, Petrel TA, Brueggemeier RW. Signaling pathways regulating aromatase and cyclooxygenases in normal and malignant breast cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 80:203-212,2002. Ristimäki A, Sivula A, Lundin J, Lundin M, Salminen T, Haglund C, Joensuu H, Isola J. Prognostic significance of elevated cyclooxygenase-2 expression in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 62:632-635, 2002. Saba CF, Rogers KS, Newman SJ, Mauldin GE, Vail DM. Mammary gland tumors in male dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 21:1056-1059, 2007. Salhab M, Singh-Ranger G, Mokbel R, Jouhra F, Jiang WG, Mokbel K. Cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression correlates with aromatase expression in human breast cancer. J Surg Oncol. 96424-96428, 2007 Schneider R. Comparison of age, sex, and incidence rates in human and canine breast cancer. Cancer. 26:419-426, 1970. Silva MC, Rowlands MG, Dowsett M, Gusterson B, McKinna JA, Fryatt I, Coombes RC. Intratumoral aromatase as a prognostic factor in human breast carcinoma. Cancer Res. 49:2588-2591, 1989. Simon LS. COX-2 inhibitors. Are they nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with a better safety profile? Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 30:1011-1025, 2001 Simpson ER, Mahendroo MS, Means GD, Kilgore MW, Hinshelwood MM, Graham-Lorence S, Amarneh B, Ito Y, Fisher CR, Michael MD, Aromatase cytochrome P450, the enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis. Endocr Rev. 15:342-355, 1994. Sonnenschein E, Toniolo P, Terry MB, Bruning PF, Kato I, Koenig KL, Shore RE. Body fat distribution and obesity in pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. Int J Epidemiol. 28:1026-1031, 1999. Sorenmo K. Canine mammary gland tumors. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 33:573-596, 2003. Sorenmo KU, Shofer FS, Goldschmidt MH. Effect of spaying and timing of spaying on survival of dogs with mammary carcinoma. J Vet Intern Med. 14:266-270, 2000. Soslow RA, Dannenberg AJ, Rush D, Woerner BM, Khan KN, Masferrer J, Koki AT. COX-2 is expressed in human pulmonary, colonic, and mammary tumors. Cancer. 89: 2637-2645, 2000. Su B, Díaz-Cruz ES, Landini S, Brueggemeier RW. Suppression of aromatase in human breast cells by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor and its analog involves multiple mechanisms independent of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. Steroids. 73:104-111, 2008. Subbaramaiah K, Howe LR, Port ER, Brogi E, Fishman J, Liu CH, Hla T, Hudis C, Dannenberg AJ. HER-2/neu status is a determinant of mammary aromatase activity in vivo: evidence for a cyclooxygenase-2-dependent mechanism. Cancer Res 66: 5504-5511, 2006. Szymczak J, Milewicz A, Thijssen JH, Blankenstein MA, Daroszewski J. Concentration of sex steroids in adipose tissue after menopause. Steroids. 63:319-321, 1998. Tan KB, Yong WP, Putti TC. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression: a potential prognostic and predictive marker for high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Histopathology. 44:24-28, 2004. Williams CS, DuBois RN. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase: why two isoforms? Am J Physiol. 270:G393-400, 1996. Wilson JE, Chandrasekharan NV, Westover KD, Eager KB, Simmons DL. Determination of expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 isozymes in canine tissues and their differential sensitivity to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Vet Res. 65:810-818, 2004. Wülfing P, Diallo R, Müller C, Wülfing C, Poremba C, Heinecke A, Rody A, Greb RR, Böcker W, Kiesel L. Analysis of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human breast cancer: high throughput tissue microarray analysis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol.129:375-382, 2003. Yamagami T, Kobayashi T, Takahashi K, Sugiyama M. Influence of ovariectomy at the time of mastectomy on the prognosis for canine malignant mammary tumours. J Small Anim Pract. 37:462-464, 1996. Zhao Y, Agarwal VR, Mendelson CR, Simpson ER. Estrogen biosynthesis proximal to a breast tumor is stimulated by PGE2 via cyclic AMP, leading to activation of promoter II of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene. Endocrinology. 137:5739-5742, 1996.
摘要: High correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and aromatase expression has been shown that the importance of these two enzymes in the induction, promotion and progression of human breast cancer. Many studies pointed that COX-2 is an upregulator of aromatase in human breast cancer and COX-2 inhibitors may have a potential effect in chemoprevention of breast cancer patients. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship of the COX-2 and aromatase expression has not been documented in mammary tissue of bitch. The aim of this study was to investigate the COX-2 and aromatase immunohistochemical reactivity of the canine mammary tumors to assess its relationship between histological characters and prognostic factors. We used monoclonal COX-2 antibody and polycolonal aromatase antibody. Tissues from 136 female dogs included 112 malignant mammary tumors, 29 with benign lesions and 3 normal mammary glands were conducted for investigation of the COX-2 and aromatase immunoexpression in canine mammary tissues. In our study, COX-2 and aromatase was not expressed in the normal mammary glands but overexpressed in 43/141 (30.5%) and 65/141 (46.1%) of all mammary tumor specimens, respectively. Furthermore, immunoreactivity of these two enzymes was both obvious higher in malignant tumors than benign tumors and showed no immunolabeling in normal mammary glands. Tumor type, tumor grade, tumor size, presence of lymph node and distant metastasis are useful to evaluate the prognosis after surgery in dogs with malignant mammary tumors. Dogs with aromatase positive expressed simple carcinoma had a poor prognosis than those with negative expressed tumors (P<0.05). Overexpression of aromatase may serve as a significant prognostic marker in dogs with simple carcinoma. However, there was no correlation between COX-2 overexpression and prognositic factors. These outcomes prompted us to confirm that these two enzymes do overexpresse in the canine malignant mammary tumors, but unlike to the results of human breast cancer, there was no significant statistic correlation between these two enzymes in survival analysis. Interaction between COX-2 and aromatase in canine mammary tumors may be via multiple mechanism(s) and further evaluations of the COX-2 inhibitors as the therapeutic agents in canine species are warranted.
其他識別: U0005-0207200819532700
Appears in Collections:獸醫學系所



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.