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標題: 聲波杜普勒測速儀在河川流量觀測上之應用
Application of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler to Discharge Measurement in Rivers
作者: 邱奕聖
Chiou, I-Sheng
關鍵字: Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler
出版社: 土木工程學系
摘要: 中 文 摘 要 台灣河川4坡陡流急,豐枯季節流量懸殊,中高水位流量量測極其不易, 而此等水文 資料又為河川治理與水資源規劃、設計之重要依據。 因此, 本研究引進高精密度之聲波 杜普勒剖面測速儀,並配合邱氏 ( Chiu )以 熵觀念為基礎之流量理論,冀能提升中高流 量觀測之精度與效率。本研 究嘗試於拖曳水槽中, 利用相對運動原理與台車速度作杜普 勒剖面測速 儀之率定驗證工作,並量測現場天然河川之速度剖面與水深, 測試結果 顯示 除於渠(河)槽底部受側向邊陲效應與靠近水面部份之流速誤差較大 外, 其餘準確度甚佳 。另外佐以分析美國科羅拉多大學動床水槽實驗之 資料與國內現場河川傳統流速儀資料,以瞭解斷面平均流速與最大流速之 比值脈動機制,並進而探討邱氏流量理論於台灣河川之適用性。分析結果 顯示,之比值在粗糙壁面紊流區略呈穩定,且該定值有隨糙率增加而遞減 之趨勢。天然河川如烏溪上游乾峰橋站與南北通橋站於中高水位時,其之 比值傾向於穩定,且Y-軸(通過斷面最大流速之垂線)變動小,可考慮以邱 氏流量理論配合杜普勒測速儀成為自動化水文觀測站。至於桶頭站低流量 時,之比值與Y-軸變動較大,而中高流量之資料缺乏應加強資料之蒐集以 供進一步之研究。
Abstract In general, rivers are steep and rapid in Taiwan. It is hard to measure the flow discharges during the medium and high flow stages.These data, however , are very important for the regulation of rivers and the water resources planning. To overcome the problem, this research used an acoustic doppler profiler ( ADP ) and Chiu's discharge theorem to more efficiently measure the medium and high flows. Both ADP and ADCP ( accoustic doppler current profiler) were calibrated in a tow tank based on the concept of relative motion. In addition, ADP were installed in a 300-pound lead fish and used to measured the flow discharges inthree rivers in the central region of Taiwan. The results of the tests indicated that the new equipment were fairly accurate except the regions near the channel bottom and the water surface due to the " side-lobe " effect and the limitation of " blanking distance ", respectively. In order to check the applicability of Chiu's discharge theorem, a set of alluvial channel data collected at Colorado State University were analyzed. It was found that the ratio of the cross-sectional average velocity to maximum velocity were relatively stable for wholly turbulent flow with rough bed, and it decreased slightly with an increase of the channel roughness. For the Chien-Fong and Nan-Pei Tong hydrological stations, both the ratio of and Y-axis ( the vertical passing through the maximum velocity of the cross section ) were reasonably stable. With application of both the Chiu's discharge theorem and the ADP, these two stations can be considered as an automatic hydrologic stations for discharge measurement in the future. As regareds Tong-Tou hydrological station, both the ratio of and the Y-axis varied with flow stage during the low flow, and additional data for medium and high flow need to be collected for further anysis in the future.
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