Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/13825
標題: 寧素對雞盲腸型球蟲之生物效應
Biological effects of neem on Eimeria tenella
作者: 林孟穎
Lin, Meng-Ying
關鍵字: neem
寧素
Eimeria tenella
chick
雞盲腸型球蟲
出版社: 獸醫學系暨研究所
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摘要: 雞球蟲症主要是以Eimeria屬球蟲感染所引起,其中致病力較高的為Eimeria tenella,感染後造成體重減輕及下痢,嚴重者甚至死亡,雞隻無法順利增重而導致經濟損失。判別雞球蟲的方式主要以臨床症狀、潛伏期、卵囊形態及球蟲寄生部位來診斷;球蟲卵囊一般都以玻璃培養皿加入2-3%之重鉻酸鉀放置在溫度20-30℃環境下2-5天直至95%卵囊芽胞化後待使用。但重鉻酸鉀中,鉻的價數為六價,六價鉻對人體具毒性,環保署對重鉻酸鉀所列舉之毒性為氧化性固體、對人體有健康危害、屬於急毒性物質第二級、具致癌性、對皮膚有腐蝕性、對水環境之危害物質等。Neem tree,中文名為楝樹,其種子、葉子、樹皮、根中含有多種具抑制害蟲成分,由楝樹所萃取出來之物質則稱為neem,並且經由研究測試,neem對人體及環境具低毒性甚至無毒。 本試驗以1% neem、0.2% neem、0.1% neem、2.5%重鉻酸鉀及蒸餾水進行芽胞率測試,結果顯示2.5%重鉻酸鉀組有最高的芽胞率,其次為0.2% neem組、1% neem與0.1% neem組,蒸餾水組為最低。再以1% neem、0.2% neem、0.1% neem、2.5% 重鉻酸鉀及蒸餾水處理過的球蟲卵囊餵食24日齡雞隻,觀察每克糞中卵囊數(O.P.G.),顯示經0.2% neem處理過的卵囊,接種後得到比2.5%重鉻酸鉀組別得到最多卵囊排出量。 綜合上述,經由0.2% neem芽胞化之球蟲卵囊,其芽胞率略低於使用2.5%重鉻酸鉀,且經0.2% neem芽胞化之球蟲卵囊經由雞隻感染實驗後發現其仍具有感染力,基於環境保護,未來是否可以使用neem作為取代重鉻酸鉀作為球蟲卵囊之孵化液,是值得被深入研究的。
Coccidiosis in chicks is a complex disease caused by one or more of several Eimeria species. The Eimeria species are obligate microscopic intracellular parasites with site-specific habitats in the gut of chicks. The infection causes weight loss and diarrhea, leading to economic losses. Until now, experimental infection concerning about coccidiosis, the oocysts are usually sporulated by 2-3% K2Cr2O7 at 20-30℃ for 2-5 days until at least 95% of oocysts have sporulated, but hexavalent chromate (Cr6+) in K2Cr2O7 which are highly toxic to human body. Neem (Azadirachta indica), one of natural plant extract, has several beneficial properties, such as lowering blood sugar, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects. Because of safely and economically cheaper, neem has been used of different parts in the treatment of various diseases and in agriculture. In the present study, unsporulated oocysts of E. tenella from chicks were treated with various concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, 1%) of dilute antiseptic (neem), distilled water and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) to examine their effects on the sporulation of oocysts of E. tenella. The chicks were then infected with the aforementioned oocysts by oral inoculation (2,000 oocysts per chick) to examine the pathogenesity of different kinds of pretreated oocysts in chick. In results, the best sporulation rate of oocysts was treated with potassium dichromate. However, we observed that using 0.2% neem-treated oocysts showed higher shedding (higher O.P.G.) compared to those oocysts pretreated with potassium dichromate in chicks. We found cavities on the surface of oocysts treated with neem by SEM observation. Conclusively, in our study, neem shows high potential in treating E. tenella compared with potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). These results led support to use dilute antiseptic neem could replace potassium dichromate to sporulation. The use of neem to sporulation could be substitute for potassium dichromate in experimental infection model in future.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/13825
其他識別: U0005-1907200916071600
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1907200916071600
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