Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Fecal progesterone profile during the breeding season of dairy goats in central Taiwan
Jack, Amelia MM
|引用:||1. 許松豪。台灣黑熊糞中性類固醇與其繁殖狀況之研究。碩士論文。國立中興大學獸醫學系。台中市。中華民國。2002。 2. Allen DG, Anderson DP, Jeffcott LB, Quesenberry KE, Radostits OM, Reeves PT, Wolf AM. Reproductive system. In: The Merck Veterinary Manual. 9th ed. Merck &CO., INC. Whitehouse Station, N.J., U.S.A.,1088, 2005. 3. Long S. Abnormal Development of the Conceptus and its Consequences. In: Noakes DE, Parkinson TJ, England GC eds. Arthur’s Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 8th ed. , Philadelphia, U.S.A., 119-144, 2001. 4. Noakes DE. Endogenous and Exogenous Control of Ovarian Cyclicity. In: Noakes DE, Parkinson TJ, England GC eds. Arthur’s Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 8th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia, U.S.A., 3-56, 2001a. 5. Noakes DE. Pregnancy and its diagnosis. In: Noakes DE, Parkinson TJ, England GC eds. Arthur’s Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 8th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia, U.S.A., 69-118, 2001b. 6. Smith MC, Sherman DM. Reproductive system. In: Smith MC, Sherman DM eds. Goat medicine. Williams and Wilkins, Maryland, U.S.A., 411-464, 1994. 7. Amoah EA, Gelaye S, Guthrie P, Rexroad Jr C E. Breeding season and aspects of reproduction of female goats. J Anim Sci 74:723-728, 1996. 8. Ayalon N. A review of embryonic mortality in cattle. J Reprod Fert 54:483-493, 1978. 9. Bech-Sabàt G, López-Gatius F, Yániz JL, García-Ispierto I, Santolaria P, Serano B, Sulon J, de Sousa NM, Beckers JF. Factors affecting plasma progesterone in the early fetal period in high producing dairy cows. Theriogenology 69:426-432, 2008. 10. Bossaert P, Leterme L, Caluwerts T, Cools S, Hostens M, Kolkman I, de Kruif A. Teaching transrectal palpation of the internal genital organs in cattle. J Vet Med Educ 36:451-460, 2009. 11. Boscos CM, Samartzi FC, Lymberopoulos AG, Stefanakis A, Belibasaki S. Assessment of progesterone concentration using enzymeimmunoassay, for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep and goats. Reprod Dom Anim 38:170-174, 2003. 12. Bulman DC, Lamming GE. Milk progesterone levels in relation to conception, repeat breeding and factors influencing acyclicity in dairy cows. J Reprod Fert 54:447-458, 1978. 13. Capezzuto A, Chelini MOM, Felippe ECG, Oliveira CA. Correlation between serum and fecal concentrations of reproductive steroids throughout gestation in goats. Anim Reprod Sci 103:78-86, 2008. 14. Chagas e Silva J, Diniz P, Lopes da Costa L. Luteotrophic effect, growth and survival of whole versus half embryos and, their relationship with plasma progesterone concentrations of recipient dairy heifers. Anim Reprod Sci 104:18-27, 2008. 15. Challis JRG, Bloomfield FH, Bocking AD, Casciani V, Chisaka H, Connor K, Dong X, Gluckman P, Harding JE, Johnstone J, Li Wei, Lye S, Okamura K, Premyslova M. Fetal signals and parturition. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 31: 492-499, 2005. 16. Chao LM, Takayama K, Nakanishi Y, Hamana K, Takagi M, Kubota C, Kojima T. Luteal lifespan and fertility after estrus synchronization in goats. J. Vet. Sci 9:95-101, 2008. 17. Colazo GM, Ambrose DJ, Kastelic JP, Small JA. Comparison of 2 enzyme immunoassays and a radioimmunoassay for measurement of progesterone concentrations in bovine plasma, skim milk and whole milk. Can J Vet Res 72:32-36, 2008. 18. del Castillo SM, Bashaw MJ, Patton ML, Rieches RR, Bercovitch FB. Fecal steroid analysis of female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) reproductive condition and the impact of endocrine status on daily time budgets. Gen Comp Endocrinol 141:271-281, 2005. 19. deNicolo G, Parkinson TJ, Kenyon PR, Morel PCH, Morris ST. Plasma progesterone concentrations during early pregnancy in spring- and autumn-bred ewes. Anim Reprod Sci 111:279-288, 2009. 20. Diskin MG, Murphy JJ, Sreenan JM. Embryo survival in dairy cows managed under pastoral conditions. Anim Reprod Sci 96: 297–311, 2006. 21. Diskin MG, Moris DG. Embryonic and early foetal losses in cattle and other ruminants. Reprod Dom Anim 43:260-267, 2008. 22. Diskin MG, Sreenan JM. Expression and detection of oestrus in cattle. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 40: 481–491, 2000. 23. Dixon AB, Knights M, Winkler JL, Marsh DJ, Pate JL, Wilson ME, Dailey RA, Seidel G, Inskeep EK. Patterns of late embryonic and fetal mortality and association with several factors in sheep. J Anim Sci 85:1274-1284, 2007. 24. Duarte G, Flores JA, Malpaux B. Delgadillo JA. Reproductive seasonality in female goats adapted to a subtropical environment persists independently of food availability. Domest Anim Endocrinol 35:362-370, 2008. 25. Dumonceaux GA, Bauman JE, Camilo GR. Evaluation of progesterone levels in feces of captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). J Zoo Widl Med 37:255-261, 2006. 26. Ealy A D, Yang Q E, Control of interferon-tau expression during early pregnancy in ruminants. Am J Reprod Immunol 61:95-106, 2009. 27. Fleming SA, Van Camp SD, Chapin HM. Serum progesterone determination as an aid for pregnancy diagnosis in goats bred out of season. Can Vet J 31:104-107, 1990. 28. Fonseca JF, Torres CAA, Costa EP, Maffili VV, Carvalho GR, Alves NG, Rubert MA. Progesterone profile and reproductive performance of estrous-induced Alpine goats given hCG five days after breeding. Anim Reprod 2:54-59, 2005. 29. Fonseca JF, Torres CAA, Maffili VV, Santos ADF, Amorim LS, Moraes EA. Progesterone and behavioral features when estrous is induced in Alpine goats. Anim Reprod Sci 103:366-373, 2008. 30. Fricke PM. Scanning the Future—Ultrasonography as a Reproductive Management Tool for Dairy Cattle. J Dairy Sci 85:1918-1926, 2002. 31. Gaafar KM, Gabr MK, Teleb DF. The hormonal profile during the estrous cycle and gestation in Damascus goats. Small Rum Res 57:85-93, 2005. 32. Garno RT, Refsdal AO, Karlberg K, Ropstad E, Waldmann A, Beckers JF, Reksen O. Pregnancy incidence in Norwegian Red cows using nonreturn to estrus, rectal palpation, pregnancy-associated glycoproteins, and progesterone. J Dairy Sci 91:3025-3033, 2008. 33. Gonzalez F, Cabrera F, Batista M, Rodriguez N, Alamo D, Sulon J, Beckers JF, Gracia A. A comparison of diagnosis of pregnancy in the goat, via transrectal ultrasound scanning, progesterone, and pregnancy-associated glycoprotein assays. Theriogenology 62:1108-1115, 2004. 34. Graham L, Schwarzenberger F, Möstl E, Galama W, Savage A. A Versatile Enzyme Immunoassay for the Determination of Progestogens in Feces and Serum. Zoo Biol 20:227-236, 2001. 35. Green J, Xie S, Quan X, Bao B, Gan X, Mathialagan N, Beckers JF, Roberts RM. Pregnancy associated bovine and ovine glycoproteins exhibit spatially and temporally distinct expression patterns during pregnancy. Biol Reprod 62:1624-1631, 2000. 36. Hansen PJ. Effects of heat stress on mammalian reproduction. Phil Trans R Soc B 364:3341-3350, 2009. 37. Hommeida A, Nakao T, Kubota H. Luteal function and conception in lactating cows and some factors influencing luteal function after first insemination. Theriogenology 62:217-225, 2004. 38. Humbolt P. Use of pregnancy specific proteins and progesterone assays to monitor pregnancy and determine the timing, frequencies and sources of embryonic mortality in ruminants. Theriogenology 56:1417-1433, 2001. 39. Inskeep EK. Preovulatory, postovulatory, and postmaternal recognition effects of concentrations of progesterone on embryonic survival in the cow. J Anim Sci 82:24-39, 2004. 40. Ishwar K Pregnancy diagnosis in sheep and goats: a review. Small Rum Res 17:37-44,1995. 41. Isobe N, Nakao T, Yamashiro H, Shimada M. Enzyme immunoassay of progesterone in the feces from beef cattle to monitor the ovarian cycle. Anim Reprod Sci 87: 1-10, 2005a. 42. Isobe N, Akita M, Nakao T, Yamashiro H, Kubota H. Pregnancy diagnosis based on the fecal progesterone concentration in beef and dairy heifers and beef cows. Anim Reprod Sci 43. Jarrell VL, Dziuk PJ. Effect of number of corpora lutea and fetuses on concentrations of progesterone in blood of goats. J Anim Sci 69:770-773, 1991. 44. Jenkin G, Young IR. Mechanisms responsible for parturition; the use of experimental models Anim Reprod Sci 82–83:567-581, 2004. 45. Jonker JH. Fetal death: comparative aspects in large domestic animals. Anim Reprod Sci 82-83:415-430, 2004. 46. Kanuya NL, Kessy BM, Nkya R, Mujuni PF. Plasma progesterone concentrations and fertility of indigenous Small East African goats, bred after treatment with cloprostenol. Small Rum Res 35:157-161, 2000. 47. Karen A, Kovacs P, Beckers JF, Sulon J, Taverne MAM, Szenci O. Pregnancy diagnosis in sheep: review of the most practical methods. Acta Vet Brno 70:115-126, 2001. 48. Kerbler TL, Buhr MM, Jordan LT, Leslie KE, Walton JS. Relationship between maternal plasma progesterone concentration and interferon-tau synthesis by the conceptus in cattle. Theriogenology 47:703-714, 1997. 49. Khan JR, Ludri RS. Hormone profile of crossbred goats during the periparturient period. Trop Anim Health Prod 4:151-162, 2002. 50. Khanum SA, Hussain M, Kausar R. Assessment of reproductive parameters in female Dwarf goat (Capra hircus) on the basis of progesterone profiles. Anim Reprod Sci 102:267–275, 2007. 51. Khanum SA, Hussain M, Kausar R. Progesterone and Estradiol profiles during estrous cycle and gestation in Dwarf goats (Capra hircus). Pakistan Vet J 28: 1-4, 2008. 52. Kim S, Tanaka T, Kamomae H. Different effects of subnormal levels of progesterone on the pulsatile and surge mode secretion of luteinizing hormone in ovariectomized goats. Biol Reprod 69:141-145, 2003. 53. Kutty CI. Gynecological examination and pregnancy diagnosis in small ruminants using bimanual palpation technique: a review. Theriogenology 51:1555-1564, 1998. 54. Kormatitisuk B, Thitaran C, Kormatitsuk S. Measurement of faecal progesterone metabolites and its application for early screening of open cows post-insemination. Reprod Dom Anim 42:238-242, 2007. 55. Korndörfer CM; Meirelles CF; da Silva Bueno IC; Abdalla AL. Evaluation of extraction methods for progesterone determination in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) feces by radioimmunoassay. Braz J Vet Res Anim Sci 35:115-119, 1998. 56. Lindhal IL. Comparison of ultrasonic techniques for the detection of pregnancy in ewes. J Reprod Fertil 18:117-120, 1969. 57. Lopes AS, Butler ST, Gilbert RO, Butler WR. Relationship of pre-ovulatory follicle size, estradiol concentrations and season to pregnancy outcome in dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 99:34-43, 2007. 58. Manalu W, Sumaryadi MY, Kusumorini N. Effect of fetal number on the concentrations of circulating maternal serum progesterone and estradiol of does during late pregnancy. Small Rum Res 23:117-124, 1996. 59. Manalu W, Sumaryadi MY. Maternal serum progesterone concentration during gestation and mammary gland growth and development at parturition in Javanese thin-tail ewes carrying a single or multiple fetuses. Small Rum Res 27:131-136, 1998a. 60. Manalu W, Sumaryadi MY. Maternal serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and lamb birth weight at parturition in Javanese thin-tail ewes with different litter size. Small Rum Res 27:131-136, 1998b. 61. Manalu W, Sumaryadi MY, Correlations between lamb birth weight and the concentrations of hormones and metabolites in the maternal serum during pregnancy J Agric Sci 133:227-234, 1999. 62. Mann GE, Green MP, Sinclair KD, Demmers KJ, Fray MD, Gutierrez CG, Garnsworthy PC, Webb R. Effects of circulating progesterone and insulin on early embryo development in beef heifers. Anim Reprod Sci 79:71-79, 2003. 63. Martinez MF, Bosch P, Bosch RA. Determination of early pregnancy and embryonic growth in goats by transrectal ultrasound scanning. Theriogenology 49:1555-1565, 1998. 64. Medan M, Watnabe G, Absy G, Sasaki K, Sharawy S, Taya K Groome NP. Ovarian Dynamics and their Associations with Peripheral Concentrations of Gonadotropins, Ovarian Steroids, and Inhibin During the Estrous Cycle in Goats. Biol Reprod 69: 57–63, 2003. 65. Medan M, Watnabe G, Absy G, Sasaki K, Sharawy S, Taya K. Early pregnancy diagnosis by means of ultrasonography as a method of improving reproductive efficiency in goats. J Reprod Dev 50:391-397, 2004. 66. Medan M, Watnabe G, Sasaki K, Sharawy S, Taya K Groome NP. Folicular and hormonal dynamics during the estrous cycle in goats. J Reprod Dev 51:455-463, 2005. 67. Mellado M, Meza-Herrera CA. Influence of season and environment on fertility of goats in a hot-arid environment. J Agric Sci 138:97-102, 2002. 68. Menchaca A, Rubianes E. Effect of high progesterone concentrations during the early luteal phase on the length of the ovulatory cycle of goats. Small Rum Res 68:69-76, 2001. 69. Menchaca A, Rubianes E. Relationship between progesterone concentration during early the luteal phase and follicular dynamics in goats. Theriogenology 57:1411-1419, 2002. 70. Moore DA, Overton MW, Chebel RC, Truscott ML, BonDurrant RH. Evaluation of factors that affect embryonic loss in dairy cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:1112-1117, 2005. 71. Munoz-Rivas R, Fitz-Rodriguez G, Poindron P, Malpaux B, Delgadillo JA. Stimulation of estrous behavior in grazing female goats by continuous or discontinuous exposure to males. J Anim Sci 85:1257-1263, 2007. 72. Mwaanga ES, Janowski T. Anoestrus in Dairy Cows, causes, prevalence and clinical forms. Reprod Dom Anim 35:193-200, 2000. 73. Ostrowski S, Blanvillain C, Mesochina P, Ismail K, Schwarzenberger F. Monitoring reproductive steroids in feces of Arabian oryx: toward a non-invasive method to predict reproductive status in the wild. Wildlife society bulletin 33:963-975, 2005. 74. Parr RA, Davis IF, Fairclough RJ, Miles MA. Overfeeding during early pregnancy reduces peripheral progesterone concentration and pregnancy rate in sheep. J. Reprod. Fertil. 80, 317-320, 1987. 75. Perumal SV, Umapathi V, Ambani T, Lakhchaura BD. A competitive dipstick enzyme immunoassay for diagnosis of early pregnancy in bovine. Reprod Dom Anim 43:744-746, 2008. 76. Pereira RJ, Polegato BF, de Souza S, Negrão JA, Duarte JM. Monitoring ovarian cycles and pregnancy in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) by measurement of fecal progesterone metabolites. Theriogenology 65: 387-399, 2006. 77. Peter AT, Levine H, Drost M, Bergfelt DR. Compilation of classical and contemporary terminology used to describe morphological aspects of ovarian dynamics in cattle. Theriogenology 71:1343-1357, 2009. 78. Pugh DG. Pregnancy determination. In: Pugh DG, Sheep and goat medicine. 2nd ed. Saunders, U.S.A., 162, 2002 79. Rabiee AR, Macmillan KL, Schwarzenberger F. The effect of feed intake on progesterone clearance rate by measuring faecal progesterone metabolites in grazing dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 67:205-214, 2001. 80. Ranasinghe RMSBK, Nakao T, Yamada K, Koike K. Silent ovulation, based on walking activity and milk progesterone concentrations, in Holstein cows housed in a free-stall barn. Theriogenology 73:942-949, 2010. 81. Rawlings NC, Ward WR. Fetal and maternal endocrine changes associated with parturition in the goat. Theriogenology 9:109-120, 1978. 82. Rhineheart JD, Starbuck-Clemmer MJ, Flores JA, Milvae RA, Yao J, Poole DH, Inskeep EK. Low peripheral progesterone and late embryonic/early fetal loss in suckled beef and lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology 71:480-490, 2009. 83. Romano JE, Thompson JA, Kraemer C, Westhusin ME, Forrest DW, Tomaszweski MA. Early pregnancy diagnosis by palpation per rectum: Influence on embryo/fetal viability in dairy cattle. Theriogenology 67:486-493, 2007. 84. Samartzi F, Belibasaki S, Vainas E, Boscos C. Plasma progesterone concentration in relation to ovulation rate and embryo yield in Chios ewes superovulated with PMSG. Anim Reprod Sci 39:1-21, 1995. 85. Sangsritavong S, Combs DK, Sartori RF, Wiltbank MC. Liver blood flow and steroid metabolism are increased by both acute feeding and hypertrophy of the digestive tract. J. Dairy Sci 83: 221. 2000. 86. Schoenecker KA, Lyda RO, Kirkpatrick J. Comparison of three fecal steroid metabolites for pregnancy detection used with single sampling in bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis). J Wildl Dis 40:273-281, 2004. 87. Schwarzenberger F, Möstl E, Palme R, Bamberg E. Faecal steroid analysis for non-invasive monitoring of reproductive status in farm, wild and zoo animals. Anim Reprod Sci 42:515-526, 1996. 88. Singer LA, Kumara MSA, Gavin W, Ayres SL. Predicting the onset of parturition in the goat by determining progesterone levels by enzyme immunoassay. Small Rum Res 52:203-209, 2004. 89. Sousa NM, Garbayo JM, Figueiredo JR, Sulon J, Gonҁalves PBD, Beckers JF. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein and progesterone profiles during pregnancy and postpartum in native goats from the north-east of Brazil. Small Rum Res 32:137-47, 1999. 90. Spencer TE, Johnson GA, Burghardt RC, Bazer FW. Progesterone and Placental Hormone Actions on the Uterus: Insights from Domestic Animals. Biol Reprod 71: 2-10, 2004. 91. Stronge AJH, Sreenan JM, Diskin MG, Mee JF, Kenny DA, Morris DG. Post-insemination milk progesterone concentration and embryo survival in dairy cows. Theriogenology 64;1212–1224, 2005. 92. Suguna K, Mehrotra S, Agarwal SK, Hoque M, Singh SK, Shanker U, Sarath T. Early pregnancy diagnosis and embryonic and fetal development using real time B mode ultrasound in goats. Small Rum Res 80:80-86, 2008. 93. Togasi M, Tsujimoto T, Yamauchi K, Deguchi Y, Hashizume K, Kizaki K, Honjou S, Isaike Y, Osawa T. Plasma and fecal sex steroid hormone profiles during the estrous in a Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus). J Reprod Dev 55:412-417, 2009. 94. Vahdat F, Hurtgen JP, Whitmore HL, Johnston SD, Ketelsen CL. Effect of time and temperature on bovine serum and plasma progesterone concentration. Theriogenology 12: 371-374, 1979. 95. Walsh RB, Kelton DF, Duffield TF, Leslie KE, Walton JS, LeBlanc SJ. Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum anovulatory condition in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90:315–324, 2007. 96. Xie S C, Low B G, Nagel R J, Kramer K K, Anthony R V, Zoli A P, Beckers J F, and Roberts R M. Identification of the major pregnancy-specific antigens of cattle and sheep as inactive members of the aspartic proteinase. Proc Nati Acad Sci 88:10247-10251, 1991. 97. Yimer N, Rosnina Y, Wahid H, Saharee AA, Yap KC, Ganesamurthi P. Ovarian activity in beef and dairy cows with prolonged postpartum period and heifers that fail to conceive. Trop Anim Health Prod 42:607-615, 2010. 98. Yotov S. Determination of the number of fetuses in sheep by means of blood progesterone assay and ultrasonography. Bulgarian J Vet Med 10:185−193, 2007. 99. Zarkawi M, Soukouti A. Serum progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay during oestrous cycle of indigenous Damascus does. New Zealand J Agric Res 44: 165-169, 2001. 100. Zduńczyk S, Mwaanga ES, Małecki-Ttepicht J, Barański W, Janowski T. Plasma progesterone levels and clinical findings in dairy cows with post-partum anoestrus. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 46:79-86, 2002. 101. Central weather bureau. http://www.cwb.gov.tw/eng/index.htm|
|摘要:||糞便荷爾蒙分析為一種以非侵襲性的方式來達到監測動物繁殖內分泌的新方法，主要用來分析雌性動物性類固醇荷爾蒙的變化，以瞭解其動情週期，懷孕狀態或繁殖障礙等問題，因採樣操作簡單，近年來逐漸受到廣泛的應用。本研究以糞孕酮濃度之分析來進行乳羊的早期懷孕診斷、建立動情週期及懷孕期孕酮濃度變化的輪廓、以及預測乳羊分娩日期及其胎仔數。本實驗從2008年十月至2010年四月於中興大學的乳羊場進行試驗，共對17隻自然交配的母山羊定期進行糞便採樣，採樣時間由交配第一天開始固定每周採樣3次，共22周，利用酵素結合免疫吸附分析方法來檢測其孕酮濃度，並於配種後2個月以腹部超音波掃描來確診羊隻的懷孕。實驗結果顯示，懷孕與未懷孕羊隻於交配後19-20天的平均糞孕酮濃度達顯著性的差異 (2492.4 ± 69.0 vs 577.8 ± 82.0 ng/g，p < 0.05)，且其敏感度、特異性及正確度皆達100%。以孕酮濃度檢測母羊平均動情週期長度為20.8 ± 0.6天。孕酮濃度的基礎值為344.3 ng/g，而黃體期孕酮濃度於週期第9-13天達最高，且於下個動情期來臨的前4天呈現顯著性的下降 (p < 0.05)。母羊懷孕期平均為149.3 ± 0.2天，其每周平均孕酮濃度變化顯示於配種後第7周開始慢慢上升，至第14周達最高，且維持高值至第21周，於分娩前6天急遽下降，並於分娩前2天下降幅度呈現顯著性的差異 (3884.3 vs 1205.0 ng/g，p < 0.05)。本實驗並未觀察到母羊懷孕期與其胎仔數、產次、品種或交配月份的相關性。平均產仔數為2.1胎，且孕酮濃度高低與產仔數的多寡只有呈現非顯著性的相關趨勢。根據本實驗之結果可知，以山羊糞孕酮濃度的分析可作為監控其繁殖狀態的新方法。|
There is an increasing interest in the application of fecal hormone analysis as an alternative approach to non-invasive reproductive assessment, primarily owing to the relative ease of sample collection from animals. Fecal steroid assays have mainly been used to study female reproduction and provide information regarding the estrus cycle, pregnancy and reproductive disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the use of fecal progesterone (FP4) concentration for early pregnancy diagnosis, mapping the FP4 profile during the estrous cycle and gestation period, in predicting the parturition date and the litter size in dairy goats. This experiment was realized on the dairy goat farm at Chung Hsing University between October 2008 and April 2010. Fecal samples were collected from 17 hand-mated goats 3 times weekly for 22 - 23 weeks, beginning on the day of mating. The levels of FP4 were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pregnancy diagnosis was performed at 2 months post-mating by trans-abdominal ultrasonography and confirmed upon birth of offsprings. The results indicated a significant difference in the mean FP4 concentration obtained during days 19 - 20 post-mating between pregnant and non-pregnant does (2492.4 ± 69.0 vs 577.8 ± 82.0 ng/g, p < 0.05). A sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 100% each was obtained applying FP4 concentration analysis on days 19 - 20 post-mating for pregnancy diagnosis. Mean estrous cycle length was 20.8 ± 0.6 days. A baseline FP4 value of 344.3 ng/g was obtained. The highest FP4 concentrations were recorded during days 9 to 13 of the luteal phase. A significant drop in the FP4 concentration was noted 4 days before the estimated day of estrus (p < 0.05). A gestation length averaging 149.3 ± 0.2 days was observed. The mean weekly FP4 profile obtained in this study showed a progressive increase from week 7 to 14 until a plateau was reached between weeks 15 and 21, and then a rapid decline beginning 6 days before with a significant drop (p < 0.05) 2 days (from 3884.3 to 1205.0 ng/g) pre-partum. In the present study, a correlation between gestation length and litter size, parity, breed or month of mating was not observed. Average litter size was 2.1 kids. No significant correlation was observed between FP4 concentration and the number of kids born. In conclusion, the measurement of FP4 concentration is a potentially alternative method for monitoring reproductive status in goats.
|Appears in Collections:||獸醫學系所|
Show full item record
TAIR Related Article
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.