Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/14303
標題: 雌性台灣水鹿之動情週期及懷孕期之糞孕酮濃度變化暨22例難產病例之回溯性調查
Fecal Progesterone Profile During Estrous Cycles and Gestation and a Retrospective Survey of 22 Dystocia Cases in Female Formosan Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor swinhoei)
作者: 蘇南伃
Su, Nan-Yu
關鍵字: Formosan Sambar Deer
台灣水鹿
Cervus unicolor swinhoei
progesterone
dystocia
糞孕酮
難產
出版社: 獸醫學系暨研究所
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摘要: 台灣水鹿(Formosan sambar deer, Cervus unicolor swinhoei)屬於熱帶鹿種,是水鹿在台灣特有的亞種,目前有關台灣水鹿的繁殖荷爾蒙濃度變化以及難產相關因子等的文獻報告仍十分缺乏。本研究的目的分為兩部分,第一部分為檢測半馴養雌性台灣水鹿之動情週期及懷孕期之糞孕酮濃度變化,第二部分的研究則經由22個台灣水鹿難產記錄的回溯性調查,探討半馴養台灣水鹿的難產發生原因及獸醫助產的有效性。試驗一採樣位於南投縣的4個鹿場,並利用ELISA(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)分析採樣母鹿的糞孕酮濃度,試驗二則收集過去9年(2000 - 2008年)中19個鹿場中的22個台灣水鹿難產記錄。試驗一的結果顯示,於未懷孕的母鹿中共收集到18個動情週期,經修正後之動情週期長度平均為21.8 ± 0.7日(範圍由14 - 25日),母鹿出現行為發情時皆符合糞孕酮的低值。在懷孕鹿隻中,依照糞孕酮濃度可在懷孕各期確實區分懷孕及未懷孕之母鹿,且4個鹿場在懷孕早期的糞孕酮濃度皆顯著低於懷孕晚期(p < 0.0001)。台灣水鹿的平均懷孕期為259.1 ± 1.3天,且不因仔鹿性別而影響。本試驗中共計有46頭仔鹿出生,仔公鹿及仔母鹿分別為65.2 %及34.8 %,出生仔鹿的公/母比則為1.88,雄性仔鹿與雌性仔鹿之出生比例達顯著差異(p < 0.05)。試驗二的結果顯示,母鹿的body condition score(BCS)並不影響難產的發生率(p = 0.59)及仔鹿的出生體重(p > 0.05),且仔鹿死亡率及母鹿死亡率在初產及經產的母鹿相似。22個難產病例中,大部分的難產仔鹿為小公鹿(81.8 %)且有72.7 %的難產小鹿死亡,其中有12例至少延遲1天以上才進行助產,其小鹿皆死亡,而6例於分娩開始後6小時內就接受助產,助產後母鹿及小鹿皆存活。此外,40.9 %的難產起因是由於母鹿受到驚嚇,主要為人為干擾導致母鹿緊迫。綜合本研究的結果顯示,根據糞孕酮濃度可於懷孕早期診斷台灣水鹿懷孕,且可利用糞孕酮濃度變化預測雌性台灣水鹿下次發情的時間以及監測卵巢功能。此外,環境緊迫對於接近分娩的母鹿是重要的難產起因,對於接近分娩的母鹿應透過良好的飼養管理,盡量減少環境之緊迫因子,以免干擾到分娩中的母鹿而引起難產。若母鹿發生難產,須儘早向獸醫尋求協助,以降低母鹿及小鹿的死亡率。
Formosan sambar deer (FSD, Cervus unicolor swinhoei) is a tropical cervids; a subspecies native to Taiwan, however, there is still a paucity of scientific documents regarding reproductive hormone profiles and dystocia related factors in FSD. The aim of this study was to investigate the fecal progesterone (FP4) profile during estrous cycles and gestation, and secondly, to investigate predisposing factors to dystocia and assess the feasibility of veterinary assisted deliveries via a retrospective survey of 22 dystocia cases in semi-domesticated female FSD. A total of 4 deer farms in Nantou County were used for the experiment 1. FP4 concentration was extracted and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twenty-two records of dystocia from 19 FSD farms over a 9-year period (2000 - 2008) were used for the experiment 2. The results of experiment 1 indicated that the modified mean estrous cycle length was 21.8 0.7 days (n = 17), with a range of 14 - 25 days. Estrous behavior in female FSD was coincident with low FP4 concentration. During each pregnancy stage, pregnant hinds could be differentiated from those non-pregnant by FP4 concentration. FP4 concentration during early pregnancy was significantly lower than that in late pregnancy in all samples analyzed (p < 0.0001). The mean length of gestation was 259.1 1.3 days (n = 41), which did not differ between male and female fawns (p > 0.05). A total of 46 fawns were born during study period, in which there was a sex ratio of 1.88 in favor of males. The percentage of male fawns was significantly higher than that of female fawns (65.2 % vs 34.8 %) (p < 0.05). The results of experiment 2 indicated that occurrence of dystocia and birthweight of fawn were not affected by maternal body condition (p > 0.05). Fawn mortality and hind mortality did not differ between primiparous and multiparous hinds. Sixteen fawns did not survived from the 22 dystocia cases, in which a large percentage (81.8%) were male fawns. In 12 of the cases where death occurred, the requests for veterinary assistance were delayed at least one day. However, there were 6 successful cases with surviving hinds and fawns, these were assisted within 6 hours after the onset of parturition. It was also noted that 40.9% of the dystocia resulted from maternal excitement, mainly due to human-caused disturbance. The comprehensive results of this study showed that FP4 profiles could be analyzed to predict estrous behavior and to monitor ovarian function in female FSD. Additionally, pregnancy diagnosis could be performed in early pregnancy via FP4 determination. Environmental stress might play an important role in the occurrence of dystocia and should be avoided through appropriate management practices. Veterinary assistance should be promptly requested to decrease fawn and hind mortality in dystocia case.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/14303
其他識別: U0005-2806201018195200
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2806201018195200
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