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Dexmedetomidine effects on pain mitigation of thermal disbudding in goat kids
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為仔羊去角芽是乳羊飼養時常見的處置，主要目的在減少羊隻因打鬥造成的損傷並方便控制羊群。大多數的去角芽術都是侵入性的，會造成急性的疼痛與緊迫以甚至腦組織的破壞，因此，疼痛的緩解也是去角芽術的重點。本研究的目的在於測定dexmedetomidine對仔山羊燒烙去解後疼痛缓解的效應。將35隻2-9日齡的仔羊隨機分配至6個組別，分別為假去角芽組（SD, n=6）；以電熱去角器（295 oC - 326 oC，每個角芽燒灼4-7秒）進行熱烙鐵去角芽術（D, n=6）；給予lidocain及meloxicam後再進行熱烙鐵去角芽術（LMD, n=6）；先給予lidocaine後進行熱烙鐵去角芽術，再肌肉注射meloxicam（LDM, n=6）；給予dexmedetomidine、meloxicam及lidocaine(環形阻斷)後進行熱烙鐵去角芽術（DMLD, n=6）；對照上組，後肌肉注射dexmedetomidine後給予生理食鹽水（DSSD, n=6）。實驗結果顯示，在所有的組別中，血漿cortisol濃度在去角芽後便立即顯著上升，而給予鎮靜劑的仔羊，其cortisol濃度相對較低，且cortisol濃度在去角芽的前後並無顯著差異，在使用lidocaine及meloxicam的組別中，cortisol的濃度並沒有顯著差異。鳴叫與踢腿的強度在D組的仔羊中最為強烈（100 %），而經dexmedetomidine鎮靜的仔羊則沒有發生鳴叫的情況。比起給予lidocaine及meloxicam的仔羊，給予dexmedetomidine的仔羊的疼痛癥狀較少，前者在去角芽後較常出現甩頭、鳴叫、擺尾、踢腿和耳朵抽動。在給予鎮靜劑的仔羊中，其心跳速率在去角芽後立刻顯著下降（P<0.05）。本研究顯示dexmedetomidine在去角芽時減輕疼痛的效果，因此建議在以燒灼方式進行仔羊去角芽術前應先給予dexmedetomidine。在實驗期間並未觀察到任何併發症。|
ABSTRACT Disbudding of goat kids is common among dairy goat producers and is aimed at reducing fighting related injuries as well as facilitating handling of the confined animals. Most of the techniques used to disbud kids appear to be invasive, cause acute pain and stress, and involve tissue destruction. Pain mitigation is relevant during disbudding. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dexmedetomidine on pain mitigation of thermal disbudding in goat kids. Thirty five kids, 4 - 9 days of age, were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups; Sham disbudded (SD, n = 6); hot-iron disbudded using a heated electric dehorner (295 - 326 oC) applied 4 - 7 seconds per horn bud (D, n = 6); hot-iron disbudded after lidocaine and meloxicam (LMD, n = 6); hot-iron disbudded after lidocaine but prior to intramuscular injection of meloxicam (LDM, n = 5); hot-iron disbudded after dexmedetomidine, meloxicam and lidocaine (DeMLD, n = 6); hot iron disbudded after intramuscular administration of dexmedetomidine and saline, followed by a ring block with saline (DeSSD, n = 6). The results indicated that plasma cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated immediately after disbudding in all groups, whereas the sedated kids had relatively lower values that showed no significant differences pre and post-disbudding. Vocalizations and kicks were of greatest intensity in the D kids (100%), whereas kids sedated with dexmedetomidine did not vocalize. The dexmedetomidine treated kids displayed least painful signs compared with kids treated with lidocaine and meloxicam that showed more head shakes, vocalizations, tail wagging, kicks and ear flicks following disbudding. No significant differences were found in cortisol concentration among kids that were treated with lidocaine and meloxicam. Heart rates were significantly decreased right after disbudding in the sedated kids (P < 0.05). No observable complications were recorded during the study. This study demonstrated the beneficial effects of dexmedetomidine and is thereby recommended to be administered prior to thermal disbudding of kids.
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