Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/14511
標題: 福馬林在吳郭魚之應用及殘留檢測分析研究
Studies of formalin application and residues analysis in Tilapia, Oreochromis hybrids
作者: 張鎮璿
Chang, Chen-Hsuan
關鍵字: 福馬林
formalin
殘留
出版社: 獸醫學系暨研究所
引用: 王應瓊。1988。儀器分析。中央圖書。台北。台灣。 日本農林水產省動物醫藥品檢查所。2006。動物用生物學的製劑基準。 http://nval.go.jp/hourei/kijyun/seiken060816.htm 水生動物疾病診斷系統。http://aqua.nvri.gov.tw/ 水質檢測方法水中甲醛、乙醛和丙醛檢測方法-液相層析儀/紫外光偵測器法。1997。行政院環既保護署環境檢驗所。NIEA W782.50B. 天野慶之,山田金次郎,尾藤方通。1963。タラおよびスケトウにおけるホルムアルデヒドの存在について.日本水産学会誌 29: 695-701. 台灣魚產。2005。 http://root.etaiwanfish.com/fish/home.nsf。 台灣魚類資料庫。http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw/chi/home.php。 台灣鰻訊。2007。 http://www.eel.org.tw/。 行政院農委會漁業署 2007 年資料。http://www.fa.gov.tw/chn/index.php 行政院農委會漁業署 2004 年資料。http://www.coa.gov.tw/pda_index.php 行政院農業委員會水產試驗所。2008。吳郭魚168。 行政院農業委員會動植物防疫檢疫局。2005。水產動物用藥品使用規範。行政院農業委員會動植物防疫檢疫局。第二版:19-21。 行政院農業委員會編印 1998 動物用藥品檢驗標準。 行政院環境保護署,(83)環署檢字00543號,排放管道中粒狀污染物採樣及其濃度之測定方法。 朱鴻鈞,陳葦芋,陳政忻。2009。台灣鯛產業概況及趨勢。農業生技產業季刊,19:16-23。 呂車鳳、方文祥、陳端雄、戴東發、杜杰憲、趙長勝、邱鴻英與李宏智。2006。獸醫藥理與治療學。p853-871。藝軒圖書出版社。台灣。台北。 李健全。1979。吳郭魚單性養殖之理論與實際。中國水產,322:11-13。 李武忠。1989。吳郭魚飼育與營養需求探討。飼料營養雜誌。89(4):94-103。 李慶玲,陳一鳴,方新疇。1995。使用四級胺鹽類(BKC) 除藻劑對水質的影響。台灣水產學會刊。22 (4): 313 ~324 。 林天生、楊順德、彭弘光。1999。常用水產藥物對青魚之急性毒研究:孔雀綠、甲基藍、硫酸銅、福馬林、高錳酸鉀及美舒添。水產研究。7:25-34。 林天生、楊順德、彭弘光、劉富光。2003。常用水產藥物孔雀綠、甲基藍、硫酸銅、福馬林、高錳酸鉀及美舒添對銀鱸之急性毒研究。水產研究。11:47-56。 林天生。1994。三氯仿、BKC對養殖池之影響及酵素改善水質效果之研究。水產研究。2:31-39。 房文紅、鄭國興。2004。水產動物藥物代謝動力學研究概況。中國水產科學。11: 379-384。 施秀惠。2004。海魚線蟲之迷思與剖析。臺大漁推15: 15-34。臺灣大學漁業推廣委員會出版。 施秀惠。2003。箱網養殖魚類的寄生蟲感染症和預防策略。臺大漁推14: 28-37。臺灣大學漁業推廣委員會出版。 施秀惠。2001。概說海獸胃線蟲。臺大漁推13: 1-13。臺灣大學漁業推廣委員會出版。 涂青宇、王渭賢。2006。歐索林酸在中華絨螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)之藥物動力學與殘留檢測研究。國立中興大學獸醫系博士論文。 陳政忻。2008。農業生技產業「水產種苗」領域研究成果產業化虛擬平台之營運規劃(以食用魚苗與觀賞魚苗之開發為重點發展項目)。行政院農委會97年度期末報告。 凌永健。1996。水中有機醛及嘉磷塞檢測方法之驗證報告。EPA - 85 - E3S3 - 09 - 04。行政院環境保護署環境檢驗所,台北。 施宣佑。2007。不同鹽度及光照度下光合細菌對日本鰻魚池底水 化學及藻相之影響。 郭建賢。2008。台灣鯛品種之 DNA 鑑定。生技研發成果產業化季刊,1: 39-45。 郭河。1973。福壽魚(改良種吳郭魚)之養殖。魚牧科學,1(4):42-69。 許應哲。2007。我國臺灣鯛產業之發展現況與未來展望 。136:70-82。 黃世鈴。2003。鰻魚養殖管理與病害防治(一) 台灣鰻訊,第223期,01-10。 黃世鈴、陳秀男。2006。鰻魚養殖之檢康管理。水產試驗所特刊。8: 1-245。 黃美瑩、陳柏璇、黃詩涵、林金榮、潘崇良。2011。海水吳郭魚養殖池中果聚醣生產菌之篩選。水產研究。19:77-91. 曾福生、周賢鏘、盧民益、李憶如、朱惠真、林瑩祝、林金榮。2011。以全同胞近親育種選育高度近親紅色吳郭魚品系。水產研究。19:55-62。 曾偉志。2008。醛酮類有機物檢測與環境因子相關性之研究。國立成功大學環境工程學系碩士論文。 張正芳。1999。卵圓鞭毛蟲病症。海水魚常見之疾病與防治。36-39頁。 張劍英、邱兆祉、丁雪娟等編著。1999。魚類寄生虫與寄生虫病。第七章寄生於魚類的纖毛虫與纖毛虫病。科學出版社。p95-98。 張湧泉、張格銓、劉富光。2008。吳郭魚雜交與自交系的成長比較--快速成長品系之研發 。水產研究。16:41-47。 張格詮、張湧泉、劉富光。2008。分子標記篩選技術於水產養殖之應用。農業生技產業季刊,18:30-33。 張瑞宗、丁惠茹、郭建賢。2010。利用四組微衛星基因座探討歐利亞吳郭魚(Oreochromis aureus)、尼羅吳郭魚(O. niloticus)與台灣鯛(Taiwan tilapia)之間的差異。魚類學會年會。 楊順德、林天生、劉富光。2005。福馬林之毒性及甲醛在鯉魚肌肉之殘留。水產研究。13:25-34。 楊筑雅。2006。卵圓鞭毛蟲(Amyloodinium ocellatum)之冷凍保存與體外培養之研究。國立中山大學海洋生物研究所碩士論文,63 頁。 農業生技產業資訊網。http://agbio.coa.gov.tw/index.aspx 鄭金華、劉冠甫、陳紫女英 (2001) SPF白蝦優良品系之選育與生產。水產試驗所研究報告。8頁。 劉朝鑫、呂車鳳、王渭賢、王誠明、何素鵬、張紹光、楊繼、董光中、詹東榮與蔡清恩。2010。獸醫藥理學手冊。1 ed。藝軒出版社。台灣。台北。 潘日南、陳亭亭。2009。濫用藥物的檢驗分析及認證制度。臺灣警察專學校警專學報。 4:35-46。 蔡錦林。1986。魚病學。華一書局,台北,台灣,95頁。 蔡添財。2002。吳郭魚之育種。養於世界。44-49。 蔡添財。2011。吳郭魚的養殖管理。水產動物防疫簡訊。06:12-13。 簡秋源、黃靜端。1993。台灣北部地區養殖海產魚類感染卵圓鞭毛蟲:流行病學及防治對策。魚病研究專集(十三)65-70。 醛酮類化合物檢測方法-高效能液相層析法。2002。行政院環既保護署環境檢驗所。NIEA R502.11C。 Amano, K., Yamada , K., Bito, M. 1963. Detection and identification of formaldehyde in gadoid fish. Bull.Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 29: 695–701 (in Japanese). Amano, K., Yamada, K. 1964. A biological formation of formaldehyde in the muscle tissue of gadoid fish.Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 30: 430–435. Arimoto, K., Sato, J., Maruyama, K., Mimura, G., and Furusawa, I. 1996. Effect of chemical and physical treatments on the inactivation of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV). Aquacculture 143:15-22. Arimoro, F. O. 2006. Culture of the freshwater rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, and its application in fish larviculture technology. African J. Biotechnology 5(7): 536-541. Birdsong, C.L., Avault, J.W. 1971. Toxicity of certain chemicals to juvenile pompano. Prog. Fish-Cult. 33: 76–80. Bucke, D. 1972. Myxosporidiosis in Coho sa.Vet Rec. 90(17): 483. Curran, W.J., McGary A.L., Petty C.S. 1980. Modern Legal Medicine, Psychiatry and Forensic Science, Davies, Philadelphia. p.52-53. Chun S K. 1992. Diseases of marine cultured fishes. Korea Fish. Times, Seoul, p. 131. Chiayvareesajja, S., Boyd, C.E., 1993. Effects of zeolite, formalin, bacterial augmentation, and aeration on total ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Aquaculture 116: 33–45. Cho, J.K., Yang, H.C. 1996. Determination of formaldehyde residue and histological observation in formalin and neutral-formalin treated Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegeli.. J. Fish Pathol. 9: 157–168. D''Abramo, L. R. 1980. Ingestion rate decrease as the stimulus for sexuality in populations of Moina macrocopa. Limnol. Oceanogr., 25(3): 422-429. Dutta, T.K., Kaviraj, A. 2001. Acute toxicity of cadmium to fish Labeo rohita and copepod Diaptomus forbesi pre-exposed to CaO and KMnO4. Chemosphere. 42(8):955-958. Das, B.K., Das, N. 2005. Impacts of quicklime (CaO) on the toxicity of copper (CuSO4, 5H2O) to fish and fish food organisms. Chemosphere. Oct;61(2):186-191. El-Sayed, A.M. 2006. Tilapia culture . CABI, London, UK pp 304. Farghaly, A.M., Ezzat, A.A., Shabana, M.B.1973. Effect of temperature and salinity changes on the blood characteristics of Tilapia zilli G. in Egyptian littoral lakes.Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 46(1):183-193. Flores, S.C., Crawford, D.L. 1973. Postmortem quality changes in iced pacific shimp Pandalus jordani. J. Food Sci. 38: 575–579. FDA, 1992. Requirements for Investigational New Animal Drugs. Eastern Fish Health Group and the American Fisheries Society Fish Health Section. The FDA Workshop, Auburn, Alabama, June 19. Gelnar, M., Lux, E.1995. On the dissemination of two Far East monogenean parasites (Dactylogyrus achmerovi Gussev, and Gyrodactylus kherulensis Ergens. 1974, of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Czechoslovakia.Folia Parasitol (Praha). 1991;38(2):131-132. FDA, 1998. Certain Other Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Formalin Solution. Code of Federal Regulations,21 CFR Part 529.1030. Gennotte, V., Franc̦ois, E., Rougeot, C., Ponthier, J., Deleuze, S., Melard C. 2012. Sperm quality analysis in XX, XY and YY males of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Theriogenology. Harada, K. 1975. Studies on enzyme catalyzing the formation of formaldehyde and dimethylamine in tissues of fishes and shells. J. Shimonoseki Univ. Fish. 23:163–241. Hose, J.E., Lightner, D.V. 1980. Absence of formaldehyde residues in penaeid shimp exposed to formalin. Aquaculture 21, 197–201. Isaksen, T.E., Karlsbakk, E., Sundnes, G.A., Nylund, A. 2010. Patterns of Ichthyobodo necator sensu stricto infections on hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Norway.Dis Aquat. Organ. 17;88(3):207-214. Jones, S., Prosperi-Porta, G., Dawe, S., Blackbourn, J., Taylor, K., Lowe, G., Osborn, A. 2001. Proliferative renal myxosporidiosis in spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in British Columbia and Washington.Folia Parasitol (Praha). 51(2-3):221-227. James, J.M. 2001. Improved measurement of formaldehyde in water-soluble polymers by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with postcolumn reaction detection. J Chromatogr A. 914: 123-129. Jung, S.H, Kim, J.W., Jeon, I.G and Lee, Y.H. 2001. Formaldehyde residues in formalin-treated olive flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish ( Sebasts schlegeli), and seawater. Aquaculture. 194: 253-262. Jianrong, L.I., Zhu, J .,and Lifang, Y.J. 2007. Determination of formaldehyde in squid by high-performance liquid chromatography. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 16: 127-130. Knipes, A.K., Janovy, J.Jr.2009. Community structure and seasonal dynamics of Dactylogyrus Spp. (Monogenea) on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas ) from the Salt Valley Watershed, Lancaster County, Nebraska.J Parasitol. 95(6):1295-305. Lewbart, G. A. 1998. Clinical nutrition of ornamental fish. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, 7(3): 154-158. Lim, L.C., Dhert, P .,and Sorgeloos, P. 2003. Recent developments in the application of live feeds in the freshwater ornamental fish culture. Aquaculture, 227: 319-331. Lin, J.F., Peng, J.F., Chi, Y.G., YuG., Jiang, G.B. 2005. Determination of formaldehyde in shitake mushroom by ionic liquid-based liquid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography. Talanta 65: 705-709. Lurling, M. 2006. Investigation of a rotifer (Brachionus calyciflorus) -green alga (Scenedesmus pectinatus) interaction under non- and nutrient-limited conditions. Ann. Limnol. - Int. J. Lim., 42 (1): 9-17. Li, J.R, Zhu, J.L. 2006. The study on control of the formaldehyde-producing in the process techniques of Dosidicus gigas dried squid thread. J Chin Inst Food Sci Tech. 1: 200-203. Leibowitz, M.P., Zilberg, D. 2009. Tetrahymena sp. infection in guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters: parasite characterization and pathology of infected fish.J Fish Dis. 32(10):845-855. Lokanathan, Y., Mohd-Adnan, A., Wan, K.L., Nathan, S. 2010. Transcriptome analysis of the Cryptocaryon irritans tomont stage identifies potential genes for the detection and control of cryptocaryonosis.BMC Genomics. 29;11:76. Lin, S., Johnson, R.S., Smith, G.K., Xie, D., Guo, H. 2011. Pathways for methanol steam reforming involving adsorbed formaldehyde and hydroxyl intermediates on Cu(111): density functional theory studies. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 28;13(20):9622-9631. Larrat, S., Marvin, J., Lair, S. 2012. Low sensitivity of antemortem gill biopsies for the detection of subclinical Pseudodactylogyrus bini infestations in American eels (Anguilla rostrata). J. Zoo Wildl Med. 43(1):190-192. Maran, M., Himelstein, R., Dikstein, S. 1972. Vorticella--a model for chemopharmacodynamic action on smooth muscle.Comp Gen Pharmacol. 3(11):363-370. Meakins, R.H., Kawooya, J.Z Parasitenkd. 1973. The effects and distribution of metacercaria on the gills of the fish Tilapia zilli (gervais) 1848. 14;43(1): 25-31. Main, K.L., Rosenfeld, C. 1996. Aquaculture health management strategies for marine fishes. Proceedings of a workshop in Honolulu, Hawaii, October 9–13, 1995. The Oceanic Institute, p: 280 Matejusova, I., Simkova, A., Sasal, P., Gelnar, M. 2003. Microhabitat distribution of Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and Pseudodactylogyrus bini among and within gill arches of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) arasitol Res. 89(4): 290-296. Martins, M.L., Xu, D.H., Shoemaker, C.A., Klesius, P.H. 2011. Temperature effects on immune response and hematological parameters of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus vaccinated with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 31(6):774-780. Pauw, N. D., P. Laureys .,and J. Morales .1981. Mass cultivation of Aaphinia magna straus on ricebran. Aquaculture, 25: 141-152 Pillay, T. 1990. Aquaculture Principles and Practices. Fishing News Books, Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd, UK. 575 pp. Plumb, J.A. 1991. Major diseases of striped bass and redfish.Vet Hum Toxicol. 33 Suppl 1: 34-39. Peeler, E.J., Feist, S.W., Longshaw, M., Thrush, M.A., St-Hilaire, S. 2008. An assessment of the variation in the prevalence of renal myxosporidiosis and hepatitis in wild brown trout, Salmo trutta L., within and between rivers in South-West England. J. Fish Dis. 719-728. Perlberg, S.T., Diamant, A., Ofir, R., Zilberg, D. 2008. Characterization of swim bladder non-inflation (SBN) in angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare (Schultz), and the effect of exposure to methylene blue. J. Fish Dis. 31(3): 215-228. Parinet, J., Rodriguez, M.J., Serodes, J.B. 2012. Modelling geosmin concentrations in three sources of raw water in Quebec, Canada. Environ Monit Assess. Picon-Camacho, S.M., Marcos-Lopez, M., Bron, J.E., Shinn, A.P. 2012. An assessment of the use of drug and non-drug interventions in the treatment of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876, a protozoan parasite of freshwater fish.Parasitology. 139(2): 149-190. Phumyu, N., Boonanuntanasarn, S., Jangpria, A., Yoshizaki, G., Na-Nakorn, U.2012.Gen Comp Endocrinol. Pubertal effects of 17α-methyltestosterone on GH-IGF-related genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-liver-gonadal axis and other biological parameters in male, female and sex-reversed Nile tilapia. Gen Comp Endocrinol. Reid, R. 1969. Fluctuations in populations of 3 Vorticella species from an activated-sludge sewage plant.J Protozool. 16(1): 103-111. Reuss, G., Disteldorf, W., Gamer, A.O., Hilt, A. 2005. Formaldehyde in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. Rubio-Godoy, M., Paladini, G., Freeman, M.A., Garcia-Vasquez, A., Shinn, A.P. 2012. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Gyrodactylus salmonis (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) isolates collected in Mexico from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Vet Parasitol. 186(3-4): 289-300. Shih, H.H .,and Jeng, M.S. 2002. Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) infecting a herbivorous fish, Siganus fuscescens, off the Taiwanese coast of the Northwest Pacific. Zoological Studies 41: 208-215. Sun, F., Chen, H.S. 2008. Monitoring of pesticide chlorpyrifos residue in farmed fish: investigation of possible sources. Chemosphere. 71(10): 1866-1869. Sprung, R.W., Martinez, M.A., Carpenter, K.L., Ham, A.J,, Washington, M.K., Arteaga, C., Sanders, M., Liebler, D.C. 2012. Precision of multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. J Proteome Res. Tucker, C.S.1987. Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to channel catfish fingerlings. Aquaculture, pp. 93–98. Thilakaratne, I.D., Rajapaksha, G., Hewakopara, A., Rajapakse, R.P., Faizal, A.C.2003. Parasitic infections in freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka. Dis Aquat Organ. 54(2): 157-162. Todal, J.A., Karlsbakk, E., Isaksen, T.E., Plarre, H., Urawa, S., Mouton, A., Hoel, E., Koren, C.W., Nylund, A. 2004. Ichthyobodo necator (Kinetoplastida)--a complex of sibling species. Dis Aquat Organ. 58(1): 9-16. USDA, APHIS. 2006. Center for Veterinary Biologic. Center for Veterinary Biologics Notices. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/cvb/html/notices.html Xu, D and Roger, W.A. 1993. Formaldehyde residue in striped bass muscle. J. Aquat Anim Health. 5: 306-312. Xu, D and Roger, W.A. 1995. Formaldehyde residue in the muscle of Nile tilapia. Asian Fish Soc. 8: 81-88. Xu, J.Z., Dai, L., Wu, B., Ding, T., Zhu, J.J., Lin, H., Chen HL, Shen CY, Jiang Y. 2009. Determination of methylene blue residues in aquatic products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.J Sep Sci. 32(23-24): 4193-4199. Yamagata, M and Low, L.K. 1995. Rapid determination of formaldehyde in banana shrimp, Penaeus merguiensis. J Food Sci. 60: 718-720. Yambot, A.V., Song, Y.L., Sung, H.H. 2003. Characterization of Cryptocaryon irritans, a parasite isolated from marine fishes in Taiwan. Dis aquat org, Vol. 54: 147–156. Zhou, D.Q., Ma, J.J., Zeng, M.Y. 2003. The assay and evaluation of uncertainty in the determination of formaldehyde in aquatic procucts by spectrophotometer. Mar Fish Res. 24: 55-59.
摘要: 福馬林(37 %甲醛溶液)在美國、加拿大和亞洲地區某些國家是被核准可使用於治療魚隻體外寄生蟲和黴菌之感染,但是澳大利亞、歐洲和日本卻指出福馬林可能有致癌的風險,因此在這些國家是禁止使用於水產動物。然而目前已經有許多文獻指出福馬林應用在水產動物上是非常安全的,因此本次的實驗目的就是想了解福馬林應用於吳郭魚(台灣鯛)的可行性及其在肌肉和肝臟的殘留時間。急性毒性試驗中將魚隻飼養魚27℃之循環系統水缸中,進行福馬林的急性毒性試驗,結果顯示急性毒性試驗的半致死率會隨著濃度逐漸降低。同時顯示福馬林的濃度與96小時內的死亡率成現一種線性的關係,48 小時和96小時內之半致死劑量為179和177.2ppm。以50 ppm福馬林藥浴下可發現台灣鯛的鰓部有上皮細胞剝離、肥大和變性等之現象。福馬林的殘留試驗結果顯示25 ppm浸泡組之魚隻的肝臟和肌肉中的甲醛殘留量,肝臟於第一小時即低於最低檢測極限,肌肉則是2小時才低於最低檢測極限;50 ppm組魚隻之下肝臟和肌肉都是兩小時後才低於最低檢測極限。綜合結果顯示福馬林於25及50 ppm濃度下用於台灣鯛是安全的,並且其殘留問題是可以不必疑慮的。
Formalin (37% formaldehyde) is approved for use in aquaculture as a chemical for controlling ectoparasites and aquatic fungi in the US, Canada, and Asia while it is prohibited in Australia, Europe, and Japan because of its association with oncogenesis. Safety about formalin-treated aquatic animals used for food has been discussed in the aquaculture industry. The aim of this study is to determine the residual concentrations of formalin in muscle and liver in cultured tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids). Acute toxicities of formalin to tilapia were determined under a semi-static condition at 27℃. Talapia was bath treated with formalin at 25 and 50 ppm, respecilively. Our results showed that the median lethal concentration (LC50) lowered progressively as the duration of exposure increased. The toxicity curves became almost asymptotic with the time axis by 96h. The 48h-LC50 and 96h-LC50 was 179 and 177.2 ppm at 27℃, respeclivdy. After 50 ppm fotmalin treatment has been found to cause gill lamellar epithelia separation, hypertrophy, and necrosis under the histopathology examindion. Meanwhile, the time of undetectable residue amount of formalin in tilapia liver and muscle tissue at 25, 50 ppm was (0, 2) and (2, 2) hour, respectively. Formalin can be used at a concentration of 25 and 50 ppm in talapia without resulting in formaldehyde residues in the edible tissues.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/14511
其他識別: U0005-1207201214304900
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1207201214304900
Appears in Collections:獸醫學系所

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.