Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/15845
標題: 營建載重模式建立及支撐結構可靠度設計
Development of Construction Load Modeling and Structural Reliability-Based Design of Falsework
作者: 郭清吉
Kuo, Ching-Chi
關鍵字: Structural Reliability-Based Design
結構可靠度設計
Constructional Load
The Strength Reduction factor
The Load factor
營建載重
強度折減因子
載重因子
出版社: 土木工程學系所
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摘要: 本研究旨在透過結構可靠度設計理論,對營建載重與模板支撐本體強度進行整合性研究。除由建築工地現場營建載重的模組化過程,建立適合模擬營建載重的或然率模式外,亦提出支撐結構在灌漿前、後階段於不同可靠度指數下所對應的強度折減因子及載重因子。工程單位可參考本研究結果以驗核灌漿前、後階段支撐結構之安全配置。 營建載重之建立結果顯示:灌漿前階段之載重來源以鋼筋材料為主,局部區域載重最大值45023.6 N/m2、平均值6940.3 N/m2、標準偏差4914.7 N/m2,或然率模式選擇以Type I極值分佈為最佳,對數常態分佈次之。灌漿後階段之載重來源除鋼筋材料外,尚有模板及支撐材料等,局部區域載重最大值61024.5 N/m2、平均值2430.2 N/m2、標準偏差3971.4 N/m2,或然率模式以Type II極值分佈及Type III極值分佈為最佳選擇模式。 對不同組搭型式之模板支撐結構本體強度研究顯示:由實際量測尺寸所求得之臨界載重平均值,與由材料尺寸標稱值所求得之臨界載重標稱值,二者比值相當接近。就支撐結構本體強度的變異係數而言,單層木支撐的變異係數為0.145、單層可調鋼管支柱的變異係數為0.078、聯合支撐鷹架系統的變異係數為0.107。 在支撐結構可靠度設計方面獲致以下結論:模板支撐本體強度折減因子隨著可靠度指數的增加而減小,但在同一可靠度指數情形下,不同工地所得之強度折減因子差異不大。營建靜載重因子並不隨可靠度指數的增加而變動。營建活載重因子隨著可靠度指數的增加而增加。且在同一可靠度指數情形下,不同工地之營建活載重因子差異相當大。在不同營建載重比條件下,強度折減因子隨著可靠度指數的增加而減小、靜載重因子呈小幅增加或維持定值,而活載重因子值增加的幅度則較大;在同一可靠度指數下,強度折減因子及活載重因子隨著載重比的增加而變大,而靜載重因子則有減小的現象;然而三種因子的增加或減小幅度並不明顯,且當活、靜載重比達到20以上時,設計因數即逐漸趨於定值。在不同營建活載重變異係數條件下,強度折減因子隨著可靠度指數的增加而減小、靜載重因子則維持定值,而活載重因子值有較大幅度的增加。若在同一可靠度指數下,強度折減因子及活載重因子隨著活載重變異係數的增加而變大,而靜載重因子則仍維持定值,且當活載重變異係數由0.2增加至2.0時,活載重因子則增加3 ~ 5倍。 以現有鋼結構設計容許應力法設計時,由於該法沒有考慮載重及支撐本體強度的變異性,且該法使用之設計參數為永久階段使用的參數,與營造階段情況不同,無法有效評估支撐工地組配實際情形。本研究之可靠度設計法考慮到鋼管鷹架與木支撐的互制行為及活載重的變異性,較能準確地驗核聯合支撐鷹架系統的極限承載力,對營建結構的安全性提供更好的保證。
This paper aims to conduct integration study on construction loads and falsework strength with design theories for structure reliability. It build up the probability model suitable for construction loads simulation through modularization process of construction loads on construction sites; and also propose corresponding the strength reduction factor and the load factors for shoring structures under different reliability index. Construction units can make reference to the research results to validate the safety configuration of the shoring structure before and after grouting. The results of construction loads determination indicate that before grouting, the main load source is the steel bar. The maximum load value is 45023.6 N/m2. The average value is 6940.3 N/m2. The standard deviation is 4914.7 N/m2. As for the selection of probability model, type I extreme value distribution is the best choice, followed by lognormal distribution. After grouting, other than steel bars, load sources include formwork and supporting materials. The maximum load value is 61024.5 N/m2. The average value is 2430.2 N/m2. The standard deviation is 3971.4 N/m2. As for the selection of probability model, type II or type III extreme value distribution is the best choice. Results of studies on the falsework strength with different setup types indicate that the average critical load calculated with actual measured dimensions is very close to the nominal critical load calculated with nominal material dimensions. In terms of the coefficient of variation of the falsework strength, for single-layer wooden shoring, the coefficient of variation is 0.145, for single-layer adjustable steel tube shoring, the coefficient of variation of is 0.078, and for combined setup shoring systems, the coefficient of variation of is 0.107. In terms of the reliability design of shoring structures, following conclusions are drawn: the reduction factor of falsework strength decreases with the increase of the reliability index. With the same reliability index, the reduction factors of falsework strength acquired on different construction sites do not show much difference. The construction dead load factors do not change with the increase of the reliability index. On the other hand, the construction live load factors increase with the increase of the reliability index. With the same reliability index, the construction live load factors acquired on different construction sites vary significantly. Under the condition of different construction loads ratio, with the increase of the reliability index, the strength reduction factor reduces, the dead load factor increases slightly or remains a constant value, while the live load factor increases more significantly. With the same reliability index, the strength reduction factor and live load factor increase with the increase of the load ratio. The dead load ratio decreases under the same condition. However, the increase or decrease of these three types of factors is not obvious. When live load ratio or dead load ratio reaches over 20.0, the design factor gradually reaches a constant value. Under the condition of different coefficients of variation for live construction load, with the increase of the reliability index, the strength reduction factor reduces, the dead load factor remains a constant value, and the live load factor increases more significantly. With the same reliability index, as the coefficient of variation of live loads increases, the strength reduction factor and live load factor increase, while the dead load factor remains a constant value. When the coefficient of variation of the live load increases from 0.2 to reach 2.0, the live load factor increases 3~5 times. In the case of conducting design analysis with allowable stress design method for design of steel structures, since this method does not take into account the variation of loads and falsework strength and the design variables used in this method are variables for the permanent stage, which are different from those used in construction stage, this method cannot effectively evaluate the falsework strength on a real construction site. Since the reliability design method used in this study takes into account the interactive behaviors and the variation of live loads, it can validate the critical load of a combined setup shoring system more accurately and provide a better guarantee for the safety of construction structures.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/15845
其他識別: U0005-2407200812270800
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2407200812270800
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