Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/15976
標題: 考慮土壤結構互制及時間延遲效應之不規則建築結構H∞控制策略
H∞ Control Strategies for Irregular Buildings Considering Soil-Structure Interaction and Time-Delay Effects
作者: 張長菁
Chang, Chang-Ching
關鍵字: H∞ control
H∞控制
selection of control parameters
torsion-coupling effect
soil-structure effect
time delay effect
控制參數選擇
扭轉耦合效應
土壤結構互制
時間延遲效應
出版社: 土木工程學系所
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摘要: 本文探討主動控制系統中具強健性之H∞控制法則,應用於建築結構之減振。對於主動控制系統,不當的控制參數及控制力施加之時間延遲是造成系統不穩定之主要問題,此外,為使主動控制之設計及分析更接近真實,考量真實結構系統為扭轉耦合結構及土壤結構互制效應對結構受震反應之影響亦相當重要。因此,本文分為兩部份,第一部分探討具時間延遲之H∞控制系統之最佳控制參數選擇,第二部份為考量土壤結構互制之不規則建築結構層間位移之H∞控制。 本文之第一部分發展H∞最佳控制參數之選擇策略,由數值分析可知,γ愈小或α愈大將得到愈好的控制效能,但所需控制力也愈大。為避免系統不穩定及控制後阻尼比大於1,本文明確定義控制參數α 及γ之選擇範圍,同時為了確保系統穩定且控制效能優於LQR控制法則,推導求得控制參數α及γ上限及下限值之解析式,以作為控制參數選擇之依據,因此,為達到最佳控制效果,可藉由適當的選擇控制參數以有效降低結構受震反應。另一方面,在主動控制實際應用中,控制力施加之時間延遲是無可避免的,即使很小的時間延遲將會降低控制效果且可能造成系統不穩定。為克服時間延遲效應,本文推導最大容許延遲時間及具時間延遲之臨界控制參數解析式,並發展具時間延遲時,可確保系統穩定且達預期控制效能之控制參數選擇流程。 本文的第二部份係針對不規則結構系統,探討扭轉耦合結構受到地震力作用下,土壤結構互制效應對H∞主動控制之影響。其中,H∞控制法則中之非時變增益矩陣是基於固定基礎之模型所獲得。數值模擬結果顯示感測器及控制器之數量及位置與樓層偏心程度有極大關係,對於一個雙向偏心且偏心程度較大的結構,僅裝設一個單向主動預力鋼鍵控制系統於距離剛心最遠的對角位置,可同時降低雙向位移及旋轉方向之反應。另一方面,土壤結構互制效應係由結構的高寬比及土壤相對結構勁度比所決定,當土壤結構互制效應顯著時,控制效果比假設結構物於固定基礎差,但本文所發展之控制理論仍可降低結構反應。因此,土壤結構互制效應與扭轉耦合效應在主動控制設計中應該被考慮,尤其針對高樓結構座落於軟土層之情況。
An optimal H∞ control algorithm was employed to design active tendon control system in reducing structural seismic responses in this dissertation. For H∞ control systems, it is widely understood that selection of control parameters αand γ control force execution time delay are two major issues to assure control performance and system stability. Thus, when examining the applicability of active control, these two factors have to be taken into consideration. Furthermore, the neglect of both torsion-coupling (TC) and soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects in real buildings may greatly degrade the performance of active control systems in practice. To consider above both issues, this dissertation consists of two parts. The first part proposes a design procedure on selection of optimal control parameters of time-delayed control systems. The second part deals with the soil-structure interaction effect on vibration control effectiveness of active tendon systems for irregular buildings. In the first part of this dissertation, the strategy to select both control parameters, α and γ, of H∞ control algorithm is investigated extensively to achieve optimal control performance. Analytical results show that decrease in γ or increase in α yields better control performance, but requires larger control forces. The selection range ofα and γ for a controlled system becoming overdamped or unstable is obtained. To assure system stability and better performance than LQR control, analytical expressions of the upper and lower bounds of α and γ are derived. Therefore, the seismic responses can be effectively reduced with an appropriate selection of α and γ. In addition, control force execution time delay cannot be avoided in real application of active control. Small delay time can degrade the control performance and may even cause system instability. Explicit formulae to calculate the maximum allowable delay time and critical control parameters of α and γ are also derived for the design of stable time-delayed control systems. The desired control performance can thus be guaranteed even with time delay. The second part of this dissertation analyzes the soil-structure interaction effect on vibration control effectiveness of active tendon systems for an irregular building, which is modeled as a torsionally-coupled structure, subjected to earthquake excitations. An active tendon system using H∞ direct output feedback control algorithm is applied to reduce the seismic responses of TC building structures. The pre-calculated frequency-independent and time-invariant feedback gain matrix based on a fixed-base model is obtained. Numerical simulation results show that the required numbers of sensors, controllers and their installation locations depend highly on the degree of floor eccentricity. For a large two-way eccentric building, a one-way active tendon system placed in one of two frames farthest away from the center of resistance (C.R.) can reduce both translational and torsional responses. The SSI effect is governed by the slenderness ratio of superstructure and by the stiffness ratio of soil to superstructure. When the SSI effect is significant, the proposed control system can still reduce the structural responses with less effectiveness than that of assumed fixed base model. Therefore, the TC and SSI effects should be considered in the design of active control devices, especially for high-rise buildings located on soft site.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/15976
其他識別: U0005-1607200914125000
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1607200914125000
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