Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/1602
標題: 使用遙測檢測車輛排氣對污染改善之影響
The Effects of Pollution Improvement of Vehicles Exhaust Gas Measurement using Remote Sensing
作者: 姚俊男
Yao, Jun-Nan
關鍵字: Remote Sensing
遙測
Highly Emitted vehicles
Emitting ratio
高污染懸疑車輛
污染排放比例
出版社: 機械工程學系
摘要: 遙測的主要功能在於篩選出高污染懸疑車輛,以降低檢測成本及時間。行政院環保署於民國八十五年引進此項技術,在八十八年中共取得一百八十萬筆數據,本研究即是以統計的方法來分析這些數據,以探討國內汽車污染排放的特性。 本文首先針對遙測數據進行篩選,發現中區遙測數據有26%不合篩選標準,此外,各區的不合理數據在 0.06%以下。而遙測數據中的污染排放分布呈現γ分布的形狀,這與文獻中所述相同。 若對車齡進行分析,則發現有75%的車輛,其車齡在七年內,且以95年出廠之車輛為最多。在整體平均污染排放方面,舊車會比新車來得高。但若考慮污染排放比例,則因受新車年行駛里程及車輛數均較多於舊車的影響,使得新車較舊車來得嚴重,4~7年內車輛其貢獻量約占全體的40%。除此之外,各車齡中最髒10%的車輛,其污染貢獻量占全體的49.2%。若再對車廠因素進行分析,則發現國瑞豐田的平均污染量為最低,而以福特為最高。但在93年後出廠之各車廠車輛,其值則趨於一致。 檢測地點的選定,會影響總體平均值,其中又以HC的量測較為明顯。除此之外,無論是同一輛車在相同地點,或是同一輛車在不同地點被檢測之,其檢測值的重複性都不好。 在高污染懸疑車輛篩選方面,由於是要找出最髒的10%車輛,因此,在訂定篩選標準時,應對各期車訂定不同的篩選標準。而在檢測數據重複性方面,由於高污染懸疑車輛的重複性相當差,因此,在決定該車是否為高污染懸疑車輛時,應有兩次或兩次以上的數據支持。 本文最後嘗試以遙測數據作為基礎,探討改裝瓦斯車與其他車輛在污染排放方面所作的改善。結果顯示,改裝瓦斯車的平均污染值均較高於一般汽油車輛,其值分別為CO:1.064>0.601%;HC:225.2>121.7ppm,但其中一期改裝車中則稍有改善。若單獨與未改裝之營業車比較,則其平均值仍屬較高,惟兩者的差距有較為縮小。但在比較遙測期間改裝前後的差異時,卻發現改裝後的排放值明顯比改裝前減少甚多。
The main function of remote sensing devices is to screen highly emitted vehicles, and thus reduces the testing cost and time. Since 1996, the ROCEPA started the remote sensing program in Taiwan. A total of 1.8 millions data have been collected in the 1999 remote sensing program. The objective of this study was to analyze these data to find out the characteristics of vehicle emissions in Taiwan. Only a very small portion of the original data were screened out using the criteria based on combustion principles. The emission data can be described statistically with a gamma distribution. Vehicles less than 7 years old constituted 75% of the vehicle population, and the 1995 model year vehicles were ranked as the most popular model year. Results of analysis showed that old vehicles had higher emission concentrations than the new vehicles. However, the emitting ratio of new vehicles was higher than the old, because the new vehicles had more mileage and population. The emitting ratio of 4~7 years old vehicles was up to 40% of the total emissions. Besides, the vehicles in the top 10% of emitting rates contributed about 49.2% of the total emissions. As for the contributions from the automobile manufacturers, the TOYOTA was ranked as the lowest, and the FORD was ranked as the highest. However, discrepancies in emission concentrations between different manufactures became insignificant after 1993. The location of testing could affect the results of measuring. Besides, the reproduction of data were not good no matter these data were collected at the same location or at different locations. It is recommended that in order to find out the high emission vehicles, at least two measured data were required in the screening process. The emission characteristics of LPG vehicles were also investigated in this study. Results of comparisons between emissions of LPG vehicles and that of gasoline vehicles showed that LPG vehicles emitted more pollutants than the gasoline vehicles.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/1602
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