Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/1611
標題: 以擴散模式與計算流體力學進行車輛污染排放模式驗證
The Verification of Vehicle Emission Models with the Gaussian Dispersion Model and CFD Model
作者: 陳威成
Chen, Wei-Cheng
關鍵字: atmospheric dispersion model
大氣擴散
air pollution
CFD
空氣污染
採樣與分析
計算流體力學
出版社: 機械工程學系所
引用: 1. Ingalls, M.N., (1989), ”On-Road Vehicle Emission Factors from Measurements in a Los Angles Area Tunnel”, The 82nd Annual Meeting & Exhibition of the AWMA. 2. Pierson, W.R., Gertler, A.W., and Bradow, R.L., (1996), “Real-World Automotive Emissions Summary of Studies in the Fort Mchenry and Tuscaroro Mountain Tunnels”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 30, No. 12. 3. 陳煥文,林志仁,許逸群,蔡俊鴻,(1997),”以隧道實驗推估車輛氣狀污染物排放係數”,第十四屆空氣污染控制技術研討會。 4. 袁中新,洪崇軒,施志恆,(1997),”高雄市車行地下道空氣污染現況調查與分析”,第十四屆空氣污染控制技術研討會。 5. 洪崇軒,袁中新,施志恆,袁菁,吳名洋,(1998),”高雄市車行地下道空氣品質特性研究”,第十五屆空氣污染控制技術研討會。 6. B. Broderick, U. Budd1, B. Misstear, D. Ceburnis, S.G. Jennings, (2003), “Modelling CO Concentrations Under Free-Flowing and Congested Traffic Conditions in Ireland”, 9th Int. Conf. on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes. 7. ECE, 2000: Council Directive 2000/69/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 November 2000 relating to limit values for benzene and carbon monoxide in ambient air, O.J.E.C. L 313/12 13.12.2000 8. Joseph Levitin, Jari Härkönen, Jaakko Kukkonen and Juha Nikmo, (2003), “Evaluation of the CALINE 4 and CAR-FMI Models Against the Data from a Roadside Measurement Campaign”, 9th Int. Conf. on Harmonization within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes. 9. Kate Ellis, Christine McHugh, David Carruthers & Amy Stidworthy,”Comparison of ADMS-Roads, CALINE4 and UK DMRB Model Predictions for Roads”, Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants Ltd, May2001 10. Wei Tang , Alan Huber, Brian Bell&Walter Schwarz,” Application of CFD Simulations for Short-Range Atmospheric Dispersion Over Open Fields and Within Arrays of Bulidings”, National Research Council Research Associate at National Exposure Research Laboratory,US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC ,Feb,2006 11. CALINE 4-A Dispersion Model for Predicting Air Pollutant Concentrations near Roadways. 12. G..T. Csanady ,Turbulent Diffusion in the Environment, D. Reidel Publishing Company,1972 13. Kenneth Wark, Cecil F. Warner, Wayne T. Davis. ,Air pollution :its origin and control, Menlo Park, Calif. :Addison-Wesley ,c1998. 14. Fluent Inc, 2005. FLUENT 6.2 User’s Guide.Fluent Inc, Lebanon, NH. 15. 工業技術研究院,(2003),「機車污染排放總量推估模式建立及排放量計算」專案工作計畫。 16. 工業技術研究院,(2003),「汽車污染排放總量推估模式建立及排放量計算」專案工作計畫。 17. 車輛研究測試中心,(2004) 「柴油及替代清潔燃料引擎車輛污染排放總量推估」專案工作計畫。 18. 交通部統計處,「台閩地區機動車輛登記數」,交通部網站資料。 19. 中鼎公司,(1999),「空氣污染總量管制制度推行先期作業及空氣污染物排放量推估標準方法建立」,EPA-88-FA31-03-1059。 20. 中鼎公司,(1999),「空氣污染總量管制制度推行先期作業及空氣污染物排放量推估標準方法建立」期末報告,環保署委託計畫,EPA-88-FA31-03-1059。 21. 交通統計要覽,(2004),http://www.motc.gov.tw/service/,交通部統計處網站。
摘要: 本文主要分為兩個部份,第一部分採用路邊污染物濃度來驗證車輛污染排放模式,並以CALINE4模式來執行路邊污染物濃度計算,先以台北市大同測站的資料進行比對,該測站的車流量以機車與汽車為主,比對結果發現CO與NO2濃度變化模擬結果與量測結果相當一致,之後共進行11個點次的濃度驗證,機車驗證結果較良好地點為台北市桂林路,汽車驗證的結果則以八卦山隧道較理想,柴油車驗證結果較良好的地點為高雄市小港區新生路。 第二部分主要以CFD來模擬污染物在大氣中的擴散,以探討車輛排氣對道路兩旁空氣品質的影響。本研究分為三種情況來探討,第一種為點源排放,相當於靜止中的車輛排氣,例如紅燈停等的狀況。第二種為開放地區有限長度的線源排放,相當於移動中的車輛排氣,例如高速公路或快速道路兩旁。第三種為兩側受建築物限制,且有限長度的線源排放,相當於市區中移動的車輛排氣。 本研究以FLUENT來計算車輛排氣中的CO在大氣中擴散的情形,計算結果顯示,當點排放源強度為0.25g/s時,在排放源正下風處30公尺最高濃度點發生在地面上,大約為9 ppm,橫向擴散距離最遠達到6公尺,較高斯模式所預測的擴散範圍窄。在空曠地區,當線排放源的強度為0.0011 g/m-s,在下游30 m的地面上濃度大約為0.30 ppm。本研究並以實際的路況來進行模擬,選擇的路段為高雄市小港區新生路,由實測的交通流量及風速來推估,結果在路邊1 m處的CO濃度為0.93 ppm。
This paper is composed of two parts. The first part adopts the roadside concentrations comparison method to verify the vehicle emission model. The pollutant dispersion model Caline 4 was used to evaluate the validity of the vehicle emission factors. The measured roadside air quality data obtained from Datong Monitoring Station were first used for comparison. Results of comparison showed that the predicted data and the measured data varied consistently. Measured data at another 11 sites were then used for comparison. The data at Guilin Rd. were fairly good for motorcycle test. The data at Bagua Mt. tunnel matched well with automobile's emission factors. The data obtained at Kaoshung harbor were consistent with the Diesel vehicle's emission factors. The second part is a comparison of pollutant dispersion calculation using CFD tool with that obtained with Gaussian model. Three cases were studied in this paper. The first case is a point source dispersion, which is used to simulate stationary vehicles waiting in front of red light. The second case is a line source with finite length, which is used to simulate vehicles in motion. The third case is a confined line source, which is used to simulate vehicles moving in streets with high rise buildings in both sides. The commercial CFD code Fluent was used in this paper to carry out calculations. Results of calculations showed that in the case of point source, the maximum concentration occurred on the ground surface of about 9 ppm as the source strength is 0.25g/s. The transverse dispersion distance is about 6 m at the location downstream of 30 m. In an open area, the concentration on the ground surface at 30 m downstream is about 0.3 ppm as the source strength is 0.0011 g/m-s. A real case in kaoshung Siaokang Rd. was studied in this paper. The CO concentration was estimated to be 0.93 ppm according to the measured wind speed and the traffic flow.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/1611
其他識別: U0005-1707200612100800
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1707200612100800
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