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標題: 利用水平位移反應量測混凝土版厚度
Use of the Horizontal Displacement Response to Measure the Thickness of Concrete Plates
作者: 黃小倫
Huang, Hsiao-Lun
關鍵字: horizontal displacement response
time-of-flight- reflection technique
出版社: 土木工程學系所
引用: 1.Carino, N.J., Sansalone, M., and Hsu, N.N., "Flaw Detection in Concrete by Frequency Spectrum Analysis of Impact-Echo Waveforms," International Advances in Nondestructive Testing, 12th Edition, W.J. McGonnagle, Ed., Gordon & Breach Science Publishers, New York, pp. 117-146. (1986) 2.Carino, N.J. and Sansalone, M, "Impact-Echo: A New Method for Inspecting Construction Materials," Proceedings of Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Materials for Construction, University of Illinois, August (1988) 3.ASTM C1383 (1998), "Standard Test Method for Measuring the P-Wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates Using the Impact-Echo Method," Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 4.Cheng, C. and Sansalone, M., "The Impact-Echo Response of Concrete Plates Containing Delaminations-Numerical, Experimental, and Field Studies," RILEM: Materials and Structures, Vol. 26, pp. 274-285. (1993) 5.Lin, Y., Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Finite Element Studies of the Impact-Echo Response of Plates Containing Thin Layers and Voids, " Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Volume 9, No. 1, pp. 27-47. (1990) 6.Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Impact-Echo: A Method for Flaw Detection in Concrete Using Transient Stress Waves," NBSIR 86-3452, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, Sept., 1986, 222 pp. (1986) 7.Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Detecting Delaminations in Reinforced Concrete Slabs with and without Asphalt Concrete Overlays Using the Impact-Echo Method," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 86, No. 2, pp. 175-184. (1989) 8.Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Laboratory and Field Study of the Impact-Echo Method for Flaw Detection in Conerete," in Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, ACI Special Publication, pp. 1-20. (1988) 9.Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "The Transient Impact Response of Plates Containing Disk-shaped Flaws," NBS Journal of Research, November/December, 1987, pp. 369-381. (1987) 10.Sansalone, M. and Streett, W.B., "Impact-Echo: Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete and Masonry," Bullbrier Press, Jersey Shore, PA, (1997) 11.Lin, Y., Sansalone, M., and Carino, N.J., "Impact-Echo Response of Concrete Shafts," ASTM Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 14, NO. 2, pp. 121-137. (1991) 12.Lin, Y., and Sansalone, M., "Transient Response of Thick Circular and Square Bars Subjected to Transverse Elastic Impact," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vo1. 91, No.2, February, 1992, pp. 885-893. (1992) 13.Lin, J.M., and Sansalone, M., "The Transverse Elastic Impact Response of Thick Hollow Cylinders," Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp 139-149. (1993) 14.林宜清,陳真芳,"敲擊回音法在隧道混凝土襯砌結構非破壞試驗之應用",中國土木水利工程學刊,第八卷,第二期,pp. 173-183. (1996) 15.Lin, J.M., and Sansalone, M., "Impact-Echo Studies of Interfacial Bond Quality in Concrete: Effects of Unbonded Fraction of Area," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 93, No. 3, pp. 223-232. (1996) 16.陳麗貞,(2000) 「混凝土結構厚度之時間領域檢測法」,國立中興大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。 17.林宜清、陳真芳、蔡聖德,混凝土構件幾何形狀對波速之影響,興大工程學報,第五期,pp. 27-39. (1994) 18.Lin, J.M., Sansalone, M., and Streett,W.B., "A Procedure Based on the Use of Direct P-Waves for Determining the P-Wave Speed for Use in Impact-Echo Testing of Concrete," ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 94, No. 6, (1997) 19.童建樺,(2001)「彈性波混凝土品質檢測系統之研製與應用」,國立台灣大學應用力學研究所博士論文。 20.李盈萩,(2003) 「應用可感測敲擊時間原點之敲擊珠量測混凝土裂縫及厚度」,國立中興大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。 21.胡盟宗,(2006)「反射波走時法應用在混凝土構件之厚度量測」,國立中興大學土木工程研究所博士論文。 22.吳德彥,(2009)「反射波走時法應用於混凝土版厚度量測自動化軟體開發」,國立中興大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。
摘要: 本研究主要目的係利用水平位移探頭來量測應力波造成表面之水平位移波形,進而探討反射P波波動行為,並應用反射P波走時法來推求得版厚及波速,不但可以解決ASTM C1383檢測程序中,以混凝土表面P波波速代表內部P波波速,對於混凝土表面弱面版厚檢測結果所產生之明顯誤差問題,亦可解除四周邊界效應對版厚頻率以及側向尺寸量測之限制。 文中首先介紹版厚量測技術並探討半無窮域及版底反射波波動行為,從反射波原理中可以得知距離配置及敲擊接觸時間之不同,會影響波到時間判讀,本論文分別以數值分析與實際試體試驗,進行分析討論及試驗研究。利用近距離及遠距離兩種儀器配置,配合不同之敲擊接觸時間來討論反射P波波動行為,進而建立反射波到時間判讀準則,以作為混凝土波速及版厚計算之依據。 經由實驗結果顯示,可以得到以下結論:當使用較小的敲擊源作用於遠距離儀器配置下,在表面P波通過後第二個向上位移訊號的起始點即為反射P波波到點;使用較大敲擊源作用在遠距離儀器配置下,表面P波通過後至第二個向上位移起始點區間為一正弦曲線,結合DQ微分商數理論,求得該段最佳化曲線之反曲點即為反射P波到達時間。因此利用水平位移波形來判讀反射P波到達時間並結合應力波走時法,來推算混凝土版厚度是可行的。
The objective of this thesis makes use of horizontal displacement probe to measure the horizontal displacement responses caused by the stress wave arrivals and then explore the behavior of the P- wave reflected from the bottom surface of a plate. This thesis measures the thickness and P-wave velocity of concrete plates based on the time-of-flight- reflection technique. The technique adopted in this thesis can eliminate the errors caused by using surface P-wave velocity instead of internal P-wave's during the measuring procedure of ASTM C1383 and it can also break the limitation on the lateral dimension of plate-like concrete elements. The thesis first introduces the nondestructive techniques for determining the thickness of plates and the behavior of stress waves genertaed by impact on a semi-infinite domain and on a plate. The behavior of the reflected P-wave is investiagted in consideration of various contact times of impact and different distances between the impactor and the receiver. Both numerical and experimental studies are performed to establish the signal analysis principle for determining the arrival time of the reflected P-wave. Results obtained from the studies show that when a relatively small contact time of impact is used in the case of far distance between the impactor and the receiver, the second upward displacement after the passage of the surface P-wave is caused by the arrival of the reflected P-wave. When a relatively larg comtact time of impact is used, the arrival of the reflected P-wave occurrs in a sine curve, which is the response of the arrival of the surface P-wave mixed with the arrival of the reflected P-wave. The inflection point of the sine curve is found to be the arrival time of the reflected P-wave and can be determined by the differential quotient DQ theory. It is concluded that the use of horizontal displacement response combined with the time-of-flight- reflection technique to estimate the tickness and P-wave speed of concrete plates is feasible.
其他識別: U0005-0408201012174900
Appears in Collections:土木工程學系所



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