Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/16177
標題: 自由跌水作用下坡度渠流之水力特性研究
Hydraulic Characteristics of Free Overfall-Impacted Channel Flow over Sloping Bed
作者: 黃宏信
Huang, Hung-Shin
關鍵字: Free Overfall Flow
自由跌水
Bed Slopes
Impact Characteristics
Windows-Based
Artificial Neural Network
渠床坡度
沖擊特性
視窗化
類神經網路
出版社: 土木工程學系所
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摘要: 近年來為了河道治理或取水,經常於河道中設置跌水工、攔河堰或防砂壩等水利工程設施構造物,且因工程設施上下游產生高差,而高速水流流動所產生之水舌沖擊力最具沖擊能量及沖刷潛勢,常導致水工結構物之毀損破壞。依據台灣60條較大河川資料統計,河道平均坡度小於7%共43條,占全部60條河川之72%。為探究當渠床坡度改變,其相關水力沖擊特性參數為何,本文由不同的渠床坡度(S=0%、3%、6%、9%)、改變跌水高度(H=0.15m、0.20m、0.25m、0.30m)及配合不同單寬流量(q=0.0076~0.0402cms/m)進行單階自由跌水渠槽試驗,且在自由跌水下游渠床埋設壓力量測系統,以不干擾流場下量測下游之縱向渠床壓力水頭分佈,進一步分析其水力沖擊特性參數。為使設計者更為便捷及設計後圖示之展示快速,將利用自由跌水渠槽試驗所獲得的經驗式,藉由VB(Visusal Basic)程式語言,建構自由跌水工設計之視窗化,且應用類神經網路(Artificial Neural Network, ANN)模式,推估模擬自由跌水渠槽試驗所得水力沖擊特性參數,並藉試驗資料點作驗證,以評估其精確性。 研究結果發現,在渠槽試驗方面,最大沖擊壓力水頭(Hpd)、沖擊位置(Ld)、單寬沖擊力(Fe)及能量損失(△E)與渠床坡度(S)呈正相關;而水墊區水深(Yp)、沖擊角度(θ)及尾水深(Y1)與渠床坡度(S)為負相關。視窗化設計方面,開發出可以呈現自由跌水之水力沖擊特性參數,設計結果示意圖及計算表單之視窗化模組。倒傳遞類神經網路模式方面,在推估自由跌水渠槽試驗所得水力沖擊特性參數,都有良好之成效。研究結果對於在自由跌水相關參數設計及推估模擬上,提供一便利且精確的方法。
In recent years, the hydraulic structures crossing the river have been widely used in both natural and artificial channels to process the water resource management. These structures usually lead to a sudden vertical change of channel slope and induce a free over-fall flow, and the large impact force of a free-falling nappe due to free over-fall flow usually damages the hydraulic structure. According to statistics of the sixty largest rivers in Taiwan, there are 43 rivers (72 percent of the 60 rivers) with average slope less than 7 percent. This study used the pressure transducers, which did not disturb the flow field, were set up to measure the pressure distributions along the streamwise direction downstream of the free over-fall. The experiment includes the different drops as 0.15 m, 0.20 m, 0.25 m and 0.30 m with the range of discharges 0.0076-0.0402 cms/m for different bed slopes as 0 %, 3 %, 6 % and 9 %. Furthermore, with application of window-based design of free over-fall, the instant design information can be acquired conveniently in a short time by computer. Besides, the experimental data will be trained and validated by the artificial neural network (ANN). The experimental results indicate that the maximum impact pressure head (Hpd), the impact position (Ld), the unit width of the impact force (Fd) and the energy loss (△E) appear to be proportional to the bed drop of the downstream channel (S). The depth of pool (Yp), the nappe impact angle (θ) and the depth of tailwater (Y1) is inversely proportional to the bed drop of the downstream channel (S). Besides, this study developed a window-based design module of single step free over-fall through Visual Basic program and the figures of hydraulic impact parameters and a list table of computed result can be displayed. Moreover, the test results showed that the artificial neural network method provided accurate estimations for the hydraulic impact parameters of free overfall flow.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/16177
其他識別: U0005-0607201022564500
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-0607201022564500
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