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標題: Development of novel catalysts for fuel cell applications
作者: 楊庭豪
Yang, Ting-Hao
關鍵字: Fuel cell
Oxygen-reduction reaction
lead-ruthenium oxide pyrochlore
enzyme direct electron transfer
出版社: 化學系所
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摘要: Under the rapid growth of population and economy, environmental conservation and energy crisis are the most important tasks. Fuel cell, a kind of electrochemical energy converter, has been seen as one important key to solve these problems because of its pollution-free and high energy conversion efficiency. In this research, the main components of fuel cells were evaluated or improved by novel catalysts and electrochemical techniques. First of all, a new analytical system composing of electrochemical detection cell and manganese dioxide-deposited ring-disk electrode was developed for evaluating the most important oxygen-reduction reaction. Manganese dioxide was electro-deposited on the ring electrode for monitoring hydrogen peroxide (i.e. the product of oxygen-reduction reaction) due to its high sensitivity and selectivity. This new method is quicker and more sensitive than conventional rotating electrode, and its effect has confirmed through the evaluation of nano-gold and nano-palladium electrodes. Secondly, compared to activated MnO2 and hydrous MnO2, the outstanding catalytic characters of Nafion/PbMnOx were proved due to the larger surface area and faster HO2- disproportionate reaction. Note that the number of electron transfer of oxygen reduction reaches is as high as 3.4. As electrochemical evaluation, Nafion/PbMnOx induces improved performance in zinc-air fuel cell than other manganese oxides, including a maximum power of 38 mW cm−2, and a long discharge time of 52 hours at a current density of 10 mA cm−2. Thirdly, lead-ruthenium oxide pyrochlore owning special catalyst characteristic was synthesized in proton exchange membrane of direct methanol fuel cell. By controlled procedure with gradient impregnation, the effect caused from methanol crossover could be minimized effectively. Hence methanol concentration increase from 2 M to 10 M eventually reduces 23.5% of power loss. Finally, via a simple electrochemical anodization process, between the carbon-based screen-printed electrode and glucose oxidase not only aid in direct electron transfer behavior but also catalytic current corresponding to the concentration of glucose can be collected. These pH and glucose depended redox peaks proved clearly the unmodified biological activity of enzyme molecule. This biosensor built from anodized electrode shows rapid response within 20 seconds, calibration curve with a linear range from 0 to 900 μM glucose, and long-term stability tested for 14 days indicated less than 5% compromise.
環境保育與能源危機是人口與經濟快速成長之後所伴隨而來的重大議題。以電化學為基礎的燃料電池,不僅不會造成污染而且更擁有極高的能源轉換效率,其正是能夠一舉解決這兩項難題的關鍵技術。本研究即是利用新研發之催化劑搭配電化學之分析與處理技術對於燃料電池的主要組成元件進行評估與改進。首先針對最重要的氧氣還原反應,藉由二氧化錳對於雙氧水氧化之高靈敏度與選擇性,開發出結合流動分析以及二氧化錳修飾環盤電極的評估方法,並在奈米金以及奈米鈀上成功地獲得驗證。比較起傳統的旋轉電極,本方法可以更迅速且靈敏地評估陰極催化劑對於氧氣之還原反應。第二部份,比較全氟磺酸聚合物與三種不同錳氧化物混合後之催化特性。結果顯示,所合成之錳氧化物在有氧化鉛共存的製備條件下,其活性表面積會有增加之趨勢,而且可以加速氧氣還原之電子轉移速率。利用前述流動式環盤電極法以及旋轉電極法進行氧氣還原之評估,發現全氟磺酸聚合物/鉛錳氧化物的確能夠減少中間產物雙氧水之生成,氧氣還原電子轉移數由 2.1 增加為 3.4。實際於鋅空氣電池上進行測試,其效能與電化學評估之結果完全吻合,使用全氟磺酸聚合物/鉛錳氧化物作為陰極催化劑,可以產生最大功率為 38 mW cm−2,並可以於 10 mA cm−2 之電流密度下連續放電達52小時。第三部份是利用鉛釕黃綠石特殊的醇類氧化特性來對於直接甲醇燃料電池之質子交換膜進行改質處理。試驗發現將鉛釕黃綠石以漸層涵浸之方式合成於質子交換膜中,可以有效減少由甲醇穿透效應所造成之影響。當甲醇濃度由 2 M增加為 10 M時,能夠有效減少 23.5% 的功率耗損。最後一部份,使用簡單方便的電化學處理將碳材表面進行氧化,不但發現氧化之後的印刷碳電極與表面之葡萄糖氧化酵素具有直接的電子傳遞行為,更可以由電極上收集到對應於葡萄糖添加之氧化電流訊號。代表著電極上之酵素其生化活性依舊保持著,用來作為葡萄糖之生化感測器,具有不到 20 秒的分析時間,線性範圍可達 900 μM,而且在14天的測試中,偏差程度低於 5%。
其他識別: U0005-2408201118022000
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