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標題: 危機處理模式比較分析─以中國大陸、台灣處理SARS為例
Comparative Study of Crisis Management: The Cases of Mainland China and Taiwan in Dealing with SARS
作者: 黃志超
Huang, Jeh-Chao
關鍵字: 危機
Cycle of Crisis
Crisis Management
Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
World Health Organization (WHO)
出版社: 國際政治研究所
摘要: The occurrence of Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 has encouraged researchers to concentrate on how states deal with the crisis and manage it. By choosing Mainland China and Taiwan as the cases, this thesis intends to make description and comparison of two governments in handling the SARS crisis, especially in administrative effectiveness and the ability of crisis management. By adopting Steven Fink's crisis model as research framework, this work will point out the similarities and differences of crisis management during the SARS period of the two governments. This research finds that there are common defects during the SARS crisis for both governments, such as distraction of crisis processing, poorly function of health administration sectors, tardily response to emergency, perception difference on epidemic prevention and passive of epidemic prevention strategies among different bureaucrats. The result also indicates that the health systems of Taiwan are more responsive than that of Mainland China in network systems of monitoring and informing. Finally, this thesis proposes ten policy recommendations in dealing with infectious diseases such as SARS. These recommendations include 1. to establish professional institutions to deal with epidemic prevention; 2. to revise and augment the laws to deal with national emergency; 3. to revise the laws of infectious disease of prevention and cure; 4. to establish the standard procedures to manage the emergency of epidemic prevention; 5. to setup the processes of public of epidemic prevention; 6. to strengthen the medical personnel ability to handle emergency; 7. to improve the communication quality of epidemic situation to the public; 8. to ensure the necessary inspection of trespass; 9. to host the international academic conference of infectious disease; and last, to be affiliated with the World Health Organization.
2003年全球SARS肆虐,疫區國家如何應付此一危機成為危機處理研究之重要議題。本文研究目的係從全球防治的觀點出發,並以中國大陸及台灣為研究案例,探討兩岸政府處理SARS危機的行政效能,以檢視政府危機處理能力。在研究方法上,本文採取案例研究與比較研究法,並以Steven Fink危機四階段的劃分為研究架構,以比較事件發展過程中,两岸政府在處理上的相同及相差之慮。 經由比較分析發現,兩岸在防疫上存有若干共同性的缺失,如危機處理機制未專責、傳染病防治法涵蓋面不足、衛生行政部門功能弱化、政府緊急應變遲緩、政府內部機關間防疫認知差異及防疫策略之被動等。本研究也發現,台灣在衛生體系之監測、通報網絡及疫情透明度均優於中國大陸。綜合以上之結論,本研究對政府提出10項政策建議,包括成立疫災緊急應變機構、增訂國家緊急事態法、修訂傳染病防治法、建立疫災動員機制、建立疫情訊息公開機制、強化醫務人員危機處理、加強對民眾疫情宣導、落實對非法入境人士之檢疫工作、舉辦國際性傳染病學術研討會、以及積極爭取加入世界衛生組織等。
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