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標題: 多重秘密分享方法之研究
A Study on Multiple Secret Sharing Scheme
作者: 黃國峰
Hwang, Kuo-Feng
關鍵字: secret sharing
systematic block codes
出版社: 應用數學系所
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摘要: 隨著網際網路的普及以及電腦與通訊技術的不斷進步,人們可以非常方便地透過公共網路,存取各種網路資源與傳送具有敏感性的資料。因此,也產生了許多與網路安全相關的重要議題,其中之一就是秘密訊息的分享。尤其是當人類生活中,有許多部分愈來愈仰賴電子通訊,使用電子方式來儲存非常重要的檔案也愈來愈普及了。 所以在一個分散式的網路系統中,如何對於系統內的各種檔案與訊息,依據各種不同的等級、類別以及用途,運用不同的密鑰來加以保護與分享,已達到更安全的分享資源之目標,也就愈來愈趨重要了。因此,如何設計一個同時具有安全性與效率的秘密分享協定,是一件非常重要的研究課題。在本論文中,我們將針對多重秘密訊息分享方法與機制來加以研究與探討。 秘密訊息分享,就是指在一個分散式系統中,當一群合法的使用者想要分享一個共同的主密鑰時,密鑰管理者(dealer)會將密鑰分成n份不同的次密鑰,然後將這些次密鑰分給每一位參與者(participant),只有當參與者人數至少達到某一個門檻值(t)的時候,才能將主密鑰推導出來。這個方法是在西元1979年由Blakley[1]與shamir[2]所分別提出的,接著藉由他們所提出來的觀念, 便陸陸續續有許多論文提出了許多不同的方法。 在本論文中,我們提出了一個多重秘密分享的方法,讓參與者只需要持有他自己的私有密鑰,便能夠很安全地與其他參與者共同來分享他們的秘密訊息,並且可以驗證其他參與者身分的合法性。而有關於所分享的多重秘密訊息的許多相關資訊,都可以很方便及安全地公佈在電子公佈欄上,不需要透過秘密通道來加以傳送。 本論文中,我們是運用系統化區塊碼(systematic block codes)的原理,來設計一個系統化區塊碼生成陣列(systematic block generator matrix) G(2m+1, m+1),並同時結合shamir秘密分享與RSA公開密鑰加密系統的觀念,提出的一個多重秘密分享機制,以達到提供一個具有動態與即時地分享多重秘密訊息的目標。 而我們所提出的方法具有容易地動態產生存取結構以及即時地更新存取結構的陣列,減少訊息溝通負載,具有彈性化的更新存取結構方式,以及非常安全地驗證分享者身份的合法性等優點。
Authenticated key distribution is one of the most important mechanisms for providing secure services in networking environments. When a group of people share a common key in a distributed system, it is highly desirable to have robust key management such that a maximum level of secrecy (privacy) can be achieved while allowing some faults (resiliency) to be tolerated. Secret sharing schemes help users to share a secret in a group. A secret sharing scheme is a method that allows a secret to be shared among a finite set of participants in such a way that only qualified subsets of participants can recover it. In this dissertation, the proposed scheme permits each participant to share secrets with other participants by holding only his secret key and dynamically change the access structure on-line for distributed systems. Only the qualified subset of participants can obtain the shared secret in a distributed system. Each participant is allowed to check whether another participant has provided the true information in the recovery phase or not. We propose a new solution based on systematic block codes that can dynamically change the access structure with m shared secrets. We designed a systematic block code generator matrix G(2m+1, m+1) that can be pre-computed and implemented on VLSI chips. The security of our scheme is the same as that of the RSA cryptosystem and Shamir's (t, n) threshold scheme. Our scheme has the advantages of easy generator matrix construction, smaller communication overhead and nondisclosure of user secrets after multiple secret reconstruction phases. We improve the process efficiency and security for multiple secret sharing in distributed systems.
其他識別: U0005-2408200601100300
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