Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/17685
標題: 全球網際網路的治理-以網際網路名稱與號碼分配組織為例
Global Internet Governance-the Case of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
作者: 葉嘉寶
Yen, Chia-Pao
關鍵字: Global Governance
全球治理
ICANN
Governance Arrangement
Internet Governance
WSIS
Power
網際網路名稱與號碼分配組織
治理安排
網路治理
世界資訊社會高峰會
權力
出版社: 國際政治研究所
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摘要: 摘要 網路空間長期以來被視為是沒有政府干預和管制的地方。1998年在美國主導下成立的網際網路名稱與號碼分配組織,打破過去網路治理之技術面和政策面的單一性,進而以私人部門領導和由下而上的政策決定模式進行網路治理的工作,維持免除政府過多干預的原則。然而,隨著網路全球化的發展,國際社群要求參與網路治理的過程和進行網際網路名稱與號碼分配組織的改革,引發世界資訊社會高峰會的召開。本文以治理安排的分析架構來分析網際網路名稱與號碼分配組織如何進行網路治理的工作,並且解讀世界資訊社會高峰會的結果和意義。 本文研究發現指出,網際網路名稱與號碼分配組織是屬於低公共性、高代理性和低包容性的治理安排。首先,就公共性而言,網際網路名稱與號碼分配組織自1998年成立後經過一連串的內部改革,最新的組織章程顯示私人部門獲得更多的權力且更進一步地鞏固原有的地位。雖然強化政府諮詢委員會在政策決定過程中的影響力,與各國政府創立新的關係,卻仍無法直接推派具有投票權的理事。網路使用者和協定支援組織則是最大的輸家。其次,就代理性而言,立法、行政和司法的功能分別由理事會、合約系統和世界智慧財產權組織等獨立單位來負責。第三,就包容性而言,ICANN決策權的進入機會和擁有投票權者的權重集中於商業性的利益團體手中。 另外,從網路治理的脈絡來看世界資訊社會高峰會的過程和結果,主要是反映出國際行為者之間的權力關係和兩套不同的網路治理型態之爭,分別是以網際網路名稱與號碼分配組織為主的由下而上途徑,和以國家間組織為主的由上而下途徑。網路治理論壇和網際網路名稱與號碼分配組織的並存代表資訊高峰會的延伸,兩套治理模式和行為者之間的權力爭奪也將持續進行。就網路重要資源的治理而言,依然是以ICANN作為網路核心資源管理者,美國亦是網際網路的最終控制者。對於網路治理的現況依然是由美國佔有絕對優勢而且操作得當,要改變現存的網路治理結構終究需要美國的同意。 關鍵字:全球治理、網際網路名稱與號碼分配組織、治理安排、網路治理、世界資訊社會高峰會、權力
Abstract The Internet was regarded as a space without government intervention or regulation. In 1998, the Internet Corporation for the Assigned Numbers and Names(ICANN)was created by United State to manage the address and numbers of the Internet, that unity of technology and policy was broken. ICANN was initiated as the paradigm of bottom-up regulation and led by the private sector without government intervention or political influence. However, as the internet has become a global phenomenon led to some proposals for changing the governance structure of ICANN form international community, who acting through United Nations to hold the World on Information Society(WSIS). The purpose of this paper is to discuss how ICANN to governance the Internet through the governance arrangement model, and to examine the result of WSIS. Among the results of our analysis we can highlight the following: governance arrangement of ICANN is low publicness, high delegation, and low inclusiveness. First, as the result of ICANN's inside reform process, the private sector gain more power and consolidate its political position. By reinforcing Government Advisory Committee as an advisory institution inside all major cprporate groups and constituencies, ICANN initiated a new relationship with its governments which could positively effect policy implementation. However, ICANN still no governmental official may serve as an ICANN director. The losers of inside reform process are Internet users and Protocol Supporting Group. Second, ICANN's legislative delegation was controvel by Board of Directors. ICANN's policy implementation is a four-tiered system. In dispute resolution, ICANN has adopted a Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) to address these disputes, thereby effectively setting rules of ownership and property. Third, the majority of the members of ICANN's legislating body are nominated by three supporting organizations, whitch represent mainly business groups internets. As shown in this paper, the debate around the issue of Internet Governance on the process of WSIS reflects a struggle between two different types of actors who represent two different forms of regulations with different power relations.On the one hand there was a bottom-up approach, with more participation from the private sector, organized in ICANN. On the other hand there was a top-down approach, with governments as the main source of rules and regulations, organized in United Nations. As a result, Internet Governance Forum and ICANN signify the tension between both parties could be pushed forward in the future.In the end, the governance of the Internet's core resources is mainly control by ICANN, and the United States government is one of the noly governments determining ICANN's current structure. Keywords: Global Governance, ICANN, Governance Arrangement, Internet Governance, WSIS, Power
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/17685
其他識別: U0005-2808200713270600
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2808200713270600
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