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The Design of Circularly Polarized Slot Antenna Based on Evolutionary Computation
genetic local search algorithm
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|摘要:||許多現代的通訊系統使用圓極化(circular polarization, CP)波傳送訊號，藉以提昇傳輸效能。本論文首先對系統化、演化式的設計方法進行研究，以獲得最好的CP特性為目標，並針對單饋入圓極化寬槽孔天線進行設計。尤其是對任意給定的天線操作頻率，本演化式設計方法都能提供最佳或近似最佳的阻抗頻寬與軸比頻寬，毋須使用傳統的嘗試錯誤法。此演化式設計方法的核心是基因區域搜尋演算法(Genetic Local Search, GLS)。首先找出寬槽孔天線的關鍵參數，並以模擬軟體驗證其對CP特性的影響。據此開發GLS演算法的數個區域搜尋程序，以加速優化處理。數種不同槽孔形狀的天線被設計出來，例如橢圓形、正三角形、正方形等。由實驗的結果看出，提出的天線可以滿足DCS、PCS、UMTS、802.11 a/b/g與HIPERLAN等應用的需求。此外，在CP寬槽孔天線上下分別增加了一導引器與反射器，以改善天線效能進而滿足遠距離通訊之目的。藉由分別改變導引器與反射器的位置，來研究天線效能變化情形。據此實作的天線原型，經量測其增益可達10 dBi，CP頻寬達23 %，天線幅射強度前後比超過10 dB。最後，為增加天線使用效率，本論文提出可重置雙頻操作的CP天線設計。在天線原型上增加了五個二極體，利用不同的開關順序，重置輻射元件結構，達成頻率切換的目的。由實驗結果可知此雙頻天線的頻率比很小，並提供同極化輻射。|
Many modern communication systems use circular polarization (CP) wave propagation in order to maximize the polarization efficiency component of the link budget. This dissertation explores a systematic, evolutionary-computation-based design technique to obtain optimal or near-optimal CP performance for a single-fed wide slot antenna. Specifically, near-optimal impedance and axial-ratio bandwidth for any given operating frequency can be achieved without using the trial and error method. The kernel of the evolutionary design method is the Genetic Local Search (GLS) algorithm. Several key parameters were first investigated, and their effects on CP performance were verified by simulation. Followed by developing several different local search procedures, the GLS algorithm was then able to conduct an optimization process with fewer generations. The proposed design technique was applied and evaluated by using different slot shapes such as ellipse, equilateral triangle, and square. The antennas developed by the proposed method satisfy several of the requirements for DCS, PCS, UMTS, 802.11 a/b/g and HIPERLAN application. Furthermore, in order to satisfy the requirements of the long distance communication systems, the performances of the CP wide slot antenna were improved by integrating a director and a reflector to the CP wide slot antenna. By varying the positions of the director and the reflector respectively, variation on the antenna performances was investigated. Antenna prototype was constructed, and the measured results show that the proposed antenna can provide an average gain of 10 dBi within a CP operating bandwidth of 23 % and a front-to-back ratio of over 10 dB. Finally, in order to increase the usefulness of the antenna, a CP microstrip antenna with dual-frequency operation was proposed and studied. Five PIN diodes were attached to the proposed antenna, and the ability to reconfigure the CP performances is achieved by switching these diodes in a certain sequence. The measured results demonstrated the proposed antenna can work at dual-frequency with a small frequency ratio and the same polarization.
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