Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/18127
標題: 基於區塊差值分佈的可回復式資訊隱藏
Reversible Data Hiding Based on Block Difference Histogram
作者: 楊仙維
Yang, Hsien-Wei
關鍵字: reversible
資訊隱藏
data hiding
difference histogram
block
區塊
差值分佈
可回復
出版社: 應用數學系所
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摘要: 隨著資訊科技的快速發展,人們透過網路傳遞資訊的情況越來越普遍。然而,經由網路所傳輸之資訊,其安全問題非常重要。近年來專家學者們提出了很多的研究成果,其中數位資料隱藏為資訊安全增加新的解決方案,將機密資訊隱藏在一張普通而不被注意的影像,而且能維持一定的影像的視覺效果品質,使其在傳遞時不會被他人注意到,達到安全傳遞的效果,若是再配合加密措施就更加安全了。其中可回復式資訊隱藏技術可在取出機密資訊後,能夠回復原本的載體影像,可應用於多媒體內容鑑定、法律執行、醫學影像及天文研究等。如何做到可回復原本的載體影像,同時兼顧高隱藏容量和高影像品質,是此研究領域的重要議題。 本篇論文中,我們提出了一個基於區塊差值分佈的可回復式的資訊隱藏架構,本方法是將載體影像先切割成大小相同的區塊,再從每個區塊中選取一個像素做為基準像素,計算區塊中其他像素與基準像素的灰階顏色值的絕對差值,利用這些絕對差值可得到一個差值分佈,再利用此差值分佈來將機密資訊及額外資訊隱藏到載體影像的像素中,其中額外資訊是在隱藏過程中產生,並在擷取過程中用來取出資訊及回復原本載體影像。本方法針對提升藏量及減少隱藏時對像素灰階顏色值的改變量,提出最佳化區塊切割方式和使用區塊中的中位數像素、最小值像素和最大值像素做為基準像素來計算差值並隱藏資訊,可有效提升藏量和減少載體影像的失真,經實驗結果證實,效果非常良好,勝過許多現有的可回復式資訊隱藏方法。
The rapid development of information technologies has increased the range of circumstances in which information is transmitted over networks. The security of information and the transmission process are important. In recent years, many cryptographical schemes for encryption and authentication have been proposed and implemented to ensure information security. However, the use of cryptography is easily detected in the transmission process. Data hiding or embedding technologies are new solutions that can hide confidential information or encrypt it inside an image—this does not raise suspicions and therefore provides twice the security. However, the greater is the amount of data embedded, the greater will be the distortion of the cover image. Therefore, an important goal in current data hiding research is the realization of both a high embedding capacity and high image quality. Some applications depend on the accuracy and integrity of the used images; hence, lossless reconstruction of the original cover image is essential to such applications. This goal is called reversible or lossless data hiding. This approach has been adopted in such fields as multimedia content authentication, law enforcement, medical imagery and astronomical work. The present investigation proposes a reversible scheme for hiding data that increases the embedding capacity and reduces the distortion of the embedded image. This dissertation develops a scheme of reversible data hiding based on a block difference histogram. The scheme divides the cover image into non-overlapping identical blocks. In each block, a pixel is selected as the base pixel and the absolute differences between the gray level of the base pixel and those of the other pixels are calculated. These absolute differences are used to generate a histogram, and the histogram shifting method is applied to embed secret data and overhead information into the pixels of the cover image. This overhead information is generated in the embedding process and is used to extract data and recover the cover image in the extraction process. Both the block determination methods and the difference calculation methods are presented to increase the embedding capacity and reduce the changes in the gray levels of the pixels during embedding. The block determination methods can be used to determine the optimal type of block division in order to maximize the embedding capacity in each embedding process. The difference calculation methods use the median pixel, the maximum pixel or the minimum pixel in the block as the base pixel to calculate the absolute differences between the gray level of the base pixel and those of the other pixels. These differences are known as the median difference, the max difference and the min difference, respectively. The median difference can be used to increase the hiding capacity. The offset distortion method and the distortion reduction method are utilized to cooperate with the max difference and the min difference to reduce the distortion of the embedded image. Experimental results are presented to prove that the proposed methods are valid and outperform many other reversible data hiding methods.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/18127
其他識別: U0005-2008200915511600
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2008200915511600
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