Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19502
標題: 新型視覺機密分享技術之研究
A Study on Novel Visual Secret Sharing Schemes
作者: 馮振邦
Feng, Jen-Bang
關鍵字: visual cryptography
視覺密碼學
secret sharing
multimedia system
機密分享
多媒體系統
出版社: 資訊科學與工程學系所
引用: [1] G. Ateniese, C. Blundo, A. De Santis, and D. R. Stinson, “Visual Cryptography for General Access Structures,” Information and Computation, Vol. 129, No. 2, September 1996, pp. 86-106. [2] G. R. Blakley, “Safeguarding Cryptographic Keys,” Proceedings of the National Computer Conference, Vol. 48, New Jersey, USA, 1979, pp. 313-317. [3] C. Blundo, A. De Santis, and M. Naor, “Visual Cryptography for Gray-Level Image,” Information Processing Letters, Vol. 75, 2001, pp. 255-259. [4] C.-C. Chang, C.-S. Tsai, and T.-S. Chen, “A New Scheme for Sharing Secret Color Images in Computer Network,” Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Iwate, Japan, July 2000, pp. 21-27. [5] C.-C. Chang and H.-C. Wu, “A Copyright Protection Scheme of Images Based on Visual Cryptography,” Imaging Science Journal, Vol. 49, 2001, pp. 141-150. [6] L.-H. Chen and C.-C. Wu, “A Study on Visual Cryptography,” Master Thesis, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, R.O.C., 1998. [7] T.-S. Chen, J.-H. Shiesh, and H.-W. Chen, “Using Circular Shadow Image and Fixed Angle Segmentation for Visual Cryptography System,” Pan-Yellow-Sea International Workshop on Information Technologies for the Network Era, Saga, Japan, March, 2002, pp. 214-220. [8] S. Cimato, A. De Santis, A. L. Ferrara, and B. Masucci, “Ideal Contrast Visual Cryptography Schemes with Reversing,” Information Processing Letters, Vol. 93, 2005, pp. 199-206. [9] S. Cimato, R. De Prisco, and A. De Santis, “Optimal Colored Threshold Visual Cryptography Schemes,” Designs, Codes and Cryptography, Vol. 35, 2005, pp. 311-335. [10] S. Cimato, R. De Prisco, and A. De Santis, “Contrast Optimal Colored Visual Cryptography Schemes,” Proceedings of 2003 IEEE Information Theory Workshop, Paris, France, March - April 2003, pp. 139-142. [11] N. Dantera-Venkata, B. L. Evans, and V. Monga, “Color Error-Diffusion Halftoning,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Vol. 20, No. 4, July 2003, pp. 51-58. [12] J.-B. Feng, H.-C. Wu, C.-S. Tsai, and Y.-P. Chu, “A New Multi-Secret Images Sharing Scheme Using Largrange's Interpolation,” Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 76, 2005, pp. 327-339. [13] R. W. Floyd and L. Steinberg, “An Adaptive Algorithm for Spatial Grayscale,” Proceedings of the Society for Information Display, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1976, pp. 75-77. [14] M.-S. Fu and O.-C. Au, “Data Hiding in Halftone Image by Stochastic Error Diffusion,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, May 2001, Vol. 3, pp. 1965-1968. [15] M.-S. Fu and O.-C. Au, “Halftone Image Data Hiding with Intensity Selection and Connection Selection,” Signal Processing: Image Communication, Vol. 16, No. 10, August 2001, pp. 909-930. [16] M.-S. Fu and O.-C. Au, “Data Hiding Watermarking for Halftone Images,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 11, No. 4, April 2002, pp. 477-484. [17] M.-S. Fu and O.-C. Au, “Steganography in Halftone Images: Conjugate Error Diffusion,” Signal Processing, Vol. 83, No. 10, October 2003, pp. 2171-2178. [18] Y.-C. Hou, “Visual Cryptography for Color Images,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 36, No. 7, July 2003, pp. 1619-1629. [19] H.-C. Hsu, T.-S. Chen, and Y.-H. Lin, “The Ring Shadow Image Technology of Visual Cryptography by Applying Diverse Rotating Angles to Hide the Secret Sharing,” Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing & Control , Taipei, Taiwan, March 2004, pp. 996-1001. [20] T. Ishihara and H. Koga, “New Constructions of the Lattice-Based Visual Secret Sharing Scheme Using Mixture of Colors,” IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals, Vol. E85-A, No. 1, January 2002, pp. 158-166. [21] T. Ishihara and H. Koga, “A Visual Secret Sharing Scheme for Color Images Based on Meanvalue-Color Mixing,” IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals, Vol. E86-A, No. 1, January 2003, pp. 194-197. [22] M. Iwamoto and H. Yamamoto, “A Construction Method of Visual Secret Sharing Schemes for Plural Secret Images,” IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals, Vol. E86-A, No. 10, October 2003, pp. 2577-2588. [23] M. Iwamoto and H. Yamamoto, “The Optimal n-out-of-n Visual Secret Sharing Scheme for Gray-Scale Images,” IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals, Vol. E86-A, No. 10, October 2003, pp. 2238-2247. [24] I. Katsavounidis and C.-C. Jay Kuo: “A Multiscale Error Diffusion Technique for Digital Halftoning,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 6, No 3, March 1997, pp. 483-490. [25] H. Koga, “An Analytic Construction for the Visual Secret Sharing Scheme for Color Images,” IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals, Vol. E84-A, No. 1, January 2001, pp. 262-272. [26] W. Koga, “On the Practical Secret Sharing Scheme,” IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals, Vol. E84-A, No. 1, January 2001, pp. 256-261. [27] C.-C. Lin and W.-H. Tsai, “Visual Cryptography for Gray-Level Images by Dithering Techniques,” Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 24, No. 1-3, January 2003, pp. 349-358. [28] M. Mese and P. P. Vaidyanathan, “Optimized Halftoning Using Dot Diffusion and Methods for Inverse Halftoning,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2000, pp. 691-709. [29] M. Nakajima and Y. Yamaguchi, “Extended Visual Cryptography for Natural Images,” Journal of WSCG, Vol.10, No.2, 2002, pp. 303-310. [30] M. Naor and A. Shamir, “Visual Cryptography,” Advances in Cryptology: Eurpocrypt'94, Lecture Notes In Computer Science, Springer Verlag, Germany, Vol. 950, 1995, pp. 1-12. [31] M. Naor and A. Shamir, “Visual Cryptography II: Improving the Contrast via the Cover Base,” Security Protocols, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Verlag, Germany, Vol. 1189, April 1996, pp. 197-202. [32] NIST, ‘Data Encryption Standard', FIPS 46-3, October 1999. [33] S.-C. Pei and J.-M. Guo, “Data Hiding in Halftone Images with Noise-Balanced Error Diffusion,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 10, No. 12, December 2003, pp. 349-351. [34] S.-C. Pei and J.-M. Guo, “Hybrid Pixel-Based Data Hiding and Block-Based Watermarking for Error-Diffused Halftone Images,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 13, No. 8, August 2003, pp. 867-884. [35] V. Rijmen and B. Preneel, “Efficient Color Visual Encryption or Shared Colors of Benetton,” EUROCRYPTO'96, rump session, Berlin, Germany, 1996. [36] R. L. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adelman, “A Method for Obtaining Digital Signature and Public Key Cryptosystem,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 21, No. 2, February 1978, pp. 120-126. [37] A. Shamir, “How to Share a Secret,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1979, pp. 612-613. [38] D. Stinson, “Visual Cryptography and Threshold Schemes,” Potentials of IEEE, Vol. 18, No. 1, February-March 1999, pp. 13-16. [39] C.-H. Tang and C.-S. Laih, “New Colored Visual Secret Sharing Schemes,” Designs, Code and Cryptography, Vol. 20, 2000, pp. 325-335. [40] C.-S. Tsai and C.-C. Chang, “A Generalized Secret Image Sharing and Recovery Scheme,” Advanced in Multimedia Information Processing-PCM2001, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Verlag, Germany, Vol. 2195, 2001, pp. 963-968. [41] C.-S. Tsai and C.-C. Chang, “A New Repeating Color Watermarking Scheme Based on Human Visual Model,” Eurasip Journal on Applied Signal Processing, Vol. 13, 2004, pp. 1965-1972. [42] C.-S. Tsai, C.-C. Chang, and T.-S. Chen, “Sharing Multiple Secrets in Digital Images,” Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 64, No. 2, November 2002, pp. 163-170. [43] C.-S. Tsai, S.-F. Tzeng, and M.-S. Hwang, “Improved Non-repudiable Threshold Proxy Signature Scheme with Known Signers,” Informatica, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2003, pp. 393-402. [44] Y.-C. Tseng, Y.-Y. Chen, and H.-K. Pan, “A Secure Data Hiding Scheme for Binary Images,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 50, No. 8, August 2002, pp. 1227-1231. [45] Y.-C. Tseng and H.-K. Pan, “Data Hiding in 2-Color Images,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 51, No. 7, July 2002, pp. 873-878. [46] R. Ulichney, “A Review of Halftoning Techniques,” Proceedings of the SPIE, Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hardcopy, and Graphic Arts V, San Jose, CA, USA, Vol. 3963, January 2000, pp. 378-391. [47] E. R.Verheul and H. C.A.van Tilborg, “Constructions and Properties of k-out-of-n Visual Secret Sharing Scheme,” Designs, Codes, and Cryptography, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1997, pp.179-196. [48] H.-C. Wu and C.-C. Chang, “Hiding Digital Watermarks Using Fractal Compression Technique,” Fundamenta Informaticae, Vol. 58, 2003, pp. 189-202. [49] H.-C. Wu and C.-C. Chang, “Detection and Restoration of Tampered JPEG Compressed Images,” Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 64, 2002, pp. 151-161.
摘要: 視覺密碼學(Visual Cryptography)是機密分享(Secret Sharing)領域下的一個新興領域,在原本機密分享的架構及環境下,多了一個解密不需要電腦運算的限制條件,分享影像交由參與者分別攜帶,只需要疊合起來就能觀看解密的結果。在這個新的特性之下,視覺密碼學在缺乏電腦運算能力、傳統技術無法運作時,仍然能夠正常進行解密,在緊急情況下提供一個良好的解決技術。在現有的視覺密碼學研究中,仍然有許多尚待改進的地方,例如目前絕大部分視覺密碼學方法所產生的分享影像在視覺上近似雜訊,若能使分享影像看來更自然,能夠有效的保護分享影像的安全。另外,仍未有技術能夠達到不同組合解出不同機密,同時在最基礎的兩張分享影像疊合時,也未能解密出多張的不同機密影像。 因此在本論文中,首先我們提出一個使分享影像具有意義的新方法,以像素轉換為基礎,比起現有方法具備更高機密解析度,而且能夠結合其他同類型方法達到更好的效果。接著,本論文提出了一個新的具備廣義型還原架構的視覺機密分享方法,不限制解密條件,同時可以讓各組參與者解密出不同的機密影像,進一步減少了限制條件。最後本論文提出一個視覺密碼學方法,能夠在兩張分享影像中藏入多張機密影像,使兩張分享影像可以一次藏入多量的機密,而不必攜帶多量的分享影像,比起現有方法只能將最多兩張機密影像藏入,依照本論文所推導出的關係公式,在放大倍率可以接受的狀況下,能解出任意張數的機密影像。本論文所提方法在現有技術的基礎上,深入研究視覺密碼學,以推廣其應用。
Visual cryptography is a rising sub-field in the research of secret sharing. Except the properties of secret sharing, the decryption does not need any computation that the secret image reveals in human vision by just stacking the shares together. Therefore, visual cryptography is capable for emergency and special situations. However, there are plenty of rooms for improving in visual cryptography. For example, share images of current visual secret sharing schemes look like noise. It would be easy to hide the share images if the shares look like natural pictures. Also, different participants can only decrypt the same secret, and only one secret image can be decrypted from the participants. Therefore, we develop a new visual secret sharing scheme based on pixel swapping to generate two meaningful share images that the stacking results are better than existing schemes. In addition, the proposed scheme can cooperate with other schemes to enhance the quality. Then a new generalized visual secret sharing scheme is developed in this dissertation that different combination of shares can decrypt different secret images. Finally, a new idea to share multiple secret images in two share images is designed. Currently, the number of secrets is limited by two for two share images. According to the proposed relationship, the number is extended to general in our scheme with reasonable expanding ratio. The proposed schemes in this dissertation extend the research of visual cryptography and may be applied to more applications.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19502
其他識別: U0005-0407200814312700
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-0407200814312700
Appears in Collections:資訊科學與工程學系所

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.