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New Schemes on Improving Clustering Efficiency, Accuracy, and Visualization of Self-Organizing Maps.
Clustering Validity Index, Visualization.
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|摘要:||自我組織特徵映射圖(Self-Organizing Map, SOM)是一種運用非監督式的類神經網路，自我組織特徵映射圖能夠將高維度的資料藉由映射的方式對映至二維或一維的座標空間上，以利資料分群及視覺化。自我組織特徵映射圖是一種強而有力的資料分群的探勘工具。分群可說是非監督式學習領域裡最重要的一環,而分群效度(Clustering Validity) 為分群分析中重要的議題之一。在本論文中，我們將提出三個以自我組織映射圖為基礎的演算法，用來提升分群效率、準確度及視覺化的新方法。
在第一個演算法中，我們提出一個以參考點為基準的自我組織映射方法（Reference Point SOM，簡稱為RPSOM），利用參考點與兩個門檻值過濾計算的資料後，可得到較佳的運算時間。我們利用第一個門檻值當作利用輸入向量找優勝神經元的搜尋邊界值的參數，另一個門檻值則用來限制優勝神經元尋找鄰近區域神經元的有效範圍。這個方法將原來尋找初始神經元過程費時為O(n2) 的計算時間降為 O(n)。RPSOM在計算的複雜度上獲得戲劇性的改善，特別是計算大量資料集效果更顯著。從實驗結果的數據中，我們發現比起傳統的方法，利用 RPSOM可得到一個較好的初始映射圖，並且有較佳的計算效率。
A self-organizing map (SOM) is a very popular unsupervised neural network that uses the similarity of high-dimensional data in a two-dimensional or one-dimensional coordinate space to explore data clustering and visualization. SOMs are powerful tools for the exploratory of clustering methods. Clustering is the most important task in unsupervised learning and clustering validity is a major issue in cluster analysis. In this dissertation, we propose three SOM-based algorithms to improving clustering efficiency, accuracy, and visualization of SOM. In the first proposed SOM algorithm, we propose an efficient new Self-Organizing Map algorithm based on reference point and filters. A strategy called Reference Point SOM (RPSOM) is proposed to improve SOM execution time by means of filtering with two thresholds. We use a threshold value as the search boundary parameter used to search for the winner neuron with respect to input vectors. Another threshold value is used as the search boundary within which the winner neuron finds its neighbors. The proposed algorithm reduces the time complexity from O(n2) to O(n) in finding the initial neurons. The RPSOM achieves dramatically improvement in time complexity of computation, especially in the computation for large data set. From the experimental results, we find that it is better to construct a good initial map and then to improved execution time of the RPSOM is much better than traditional methods. In the second proposed SOM algorithm, a new clustering validity index is proposed to generate the clustering result of a two-level SOM. This clustering validity index includes the separation rate of inter-cluster, the relatively density of inter-cluster and the cohesion rate of intra-cluster. The clustering validity index is proposed to find the optimal number of clusters and determine which two neighboring clusters can be merged in a hierarchical clustering of a two-level SOM. Experiments show that, the proposed algorithm is able to cluster data more accurately than the classical clustering algorithms which is based on SOMs and is better able to find an optimal number of clusters by maximizing the clustering validity index. In the third proposed method, we develop a novel methodology for applications of data clustering and visualization, which is based on the SOM approach. The main process of our approach can be summarized as following. If the dataset is unlabeled, we calculate the best number of clusters in advance, and then assign the cluster labels to the neurons. After completed the cluster labels assignment, we apply the proposed method to enhance the effects of visualization. On the other hand, when the dataset is labeled, our visualization method will directly represent cluster structures in an enhanced visual form. The experimental results show that the proposed visualization method efficiently and effectively demonstrates the data distribution, inter-neuron distances, and cluster boundary. Therefore, our proposed visualization scheme is not only intuitively easy understanding of the clustering results, but also having good visualization effects on unlabeled data set.
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