Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19703
標題: 植基於統計分析之資訊隱藏技術
A Data Hiding Technique Based on Statistical Analysis
作者: 李振祥
Li, Chen Hsin
關鍵字: Data hiding
資訊隱藏
sudoku
steganography
embedding
secret reference matrix
hiding capacity
數獨
藏密學
嵌入資訊
藏密參考表
資訊藏量
出版社: 資訊科學與工程學系所
引用: [1] B. Felgenhauer and F. Jarvis, “Mathematics of Sudoku I,” Mathematical Spectrum, .vol. 39, no 1, pp 15-22, September 2006. [2] Bender, W., Morimoto, N., & Lu, A. (1996). Techniques for Data Hiding. IBM System Journal, vol 35, no 3/4, pp 313-336. [3] C.C. Chang, J.Y. Hsiao, and C.S. Chan, “Finding Optimal Least-Significant-Bit Substitution in Image Hiding by Dynamic Programming Strategy”, Pattern Recognition, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 1583-1595, 2003. [4] C.C. Chang, Y.C. Chou, and T.D. Kieu, “An Information Hiding Scheme Using Sudoku”, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control (ICICIC2008), June 2008. [5] C. C. Chang and C. Y. Lin, “Reversible Steganography for VQ compressed Images Using Side Matching and Relocation”, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 1, no. 4, pp.493-501, 2006. [6] C.K. Chan and L.M. Cheng, “Hiding Data in Images by Simple LSB Substitution”, Pattern Recognition, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 469-474, 2004. [7] D.C. Wu and W.H. Tsai, “A Steganographic Method for Images by Pixel-Value Differencing”, Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 24, no. 9-10,pp. 1613-1626, 2003. [8] F.A.P. Petitcolas, R.J. Anderson, and M.G. Kuhn, “Information Hiding—A Survey”, Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue on Protection of Multimedia Content, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1062-1078, 1999. [9] H. Wang and S. Wang, “Cyber Warfare: Steganography vs.Steganalysis”, Communications of the ACM, vol. 47, no. 10, 2004. [10] J. Fridrich, M. Goljan, and R. Du, "Reliable Detection of LSB Steganography in Grayscale and Color Images ",Proc. ACM, Special Session on Multimedia Security and Watermarking, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 27-30, 2001. [11] J. Mielikainen, “LSB Matching Revisited”, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 285-287, 2006. [12] R.M. Chao, H.C. Wu, C.C. Lee, and Y.P. Chu, “A Novel Image Data Hiding Scheme with Diamond Encoding” ,EURASIP Journal on Information Security ,vol 2009 , 9 pages, 2009. [13] S.D. Lin and C.F. Chen, “A Robust DCT-based Watermarking for Copyright Protection”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electron, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 415-421, 2000. [14] X. Zhang and S. Wang, “Efficient Steganographic Embedding by Exploiting Modification Direction”, IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 781-783, 2006. [15] W. Hong, T.S. Chen, and C.W. Shiu, “Steganography Using Sudoku Revisited”, Proceedings of the 2008 Second International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application, pp 935-939, 2008. [16] W. Hong,T.S. Chen and C.W. Shiu,"A Minimal Euclidean Distance Searching Technique for Sudoku Steganography", Proceedings of the 2008 International Symposium on Information Science and Engineering - vol. 1, pp. 515-518, 2008
摘要: 本論文提出利用Chang 等學者所發展的數獨參考表(Reference table)做為藏密的依據,藉著調整參考表中藏密資訊所屬區塊中應嵌入的位置,得以提昇偽裝影像的品質。本論文所提方法藉由統計藏密資訊在所屬區塊出現的頻率,將其出現頻率最高的藏密資訊,放置於所屬區塊中和原圖素對的平方差值最小的位置。依此方法建立的參考表對原始影像產生的失真最小,偽裝影像品質也提高。實驗結果比Chang 等學者建立的參考表的方法,其偽裝影像視覺效果平均提昇約 1.83dB。 另外,本論文亦將所提出的參考表產生方法和Hong等人所提的Minimal Euclidean Distance搜尋參考表的方法結合,測試是否會有較佳的偽裝影像品質產生,結果偽裝影像視覺效果平均提昇約0.87dB,由此可知本論文所提的方法,配合改良後的參考表搜尋方法,可穩定的提昇偽裝影像視覺效果。 最後,本論文亦提出將Chang 等學者所使用的參考表縮小至 大小,即可避免在傳輸過程中,因為參考表大量資料的傳輸,造成傳送方和接收方二者的困擾。實驗結果,將參考表縮小至 大小,對重複性較高的藏密資訊,其偽裝影像視覺效果有顯著的改善。
This thesis presents a data hiding technique modified from the Sudoku-based scheme presented by Chang et al. The proposed method introduces a new method for adapting the embedding positions in the corresponding matrix to improve the visual quality of the stego image. We first count up the frequencies of the secret message preparing to be embedded in the corresponding block. Next, the embedding positions can be adapted according to the sorted order of the frequencies. That is, the secret number with the largest appearance frequency is embedded in the position where the difference between the pixel pair is minimal. Experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient and, in average, the visual quality of the stego image is 1.83dB higher than the previous work. Moreover, we combine the proposed scheme with the Minimal Euclidean Distance searching method presented by Hong et al. The experiments show that the visual quality of the stego image is improved about 0.87dB in average. This result demonstrates that the proposed scheme combined with the modified searching method in this work is efficient and stable. Finally, we modify the reference table presented by Chang by changing it into a 4x4 table. The data size in this table is so smaller than the original reference table that it is more favorable to exchange between the transmitter and the receiver. By experiments, the visual quality of the stego image is significantly improved, if the embedded data with high repetitiveness are used.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19703
其他識別: U0005-2107201011364000
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2107201011364000
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