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A Study of Visual Cryptography and Reversible Data Hiding Algorithms
reversible data embedding
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另一方面，影像資訊隱藏(data hiding)技術是一項利用影像作為載體，用以傳遞機密資訊的技術。然而，針對某些不容許忍受些許修改的影像，如軍事、醫學等，可逆式資訊隱藏(reversible data hiding)技術使得影像在擷取出所嵌入的資訊後，可以回復至嵌入前的狀態，以達成「可逆性」。
The communication of digital images which can carry secret information has currently become a focus of research in the field of computer science. Digital images are used to carry the secret information, or even be the secret image. Visual cryptography is a technique which shares the secret image to each participant in a secure and effective way. The secret image is encoded into shares, and then distributed to participants in a qualified set where the secret information can appear on stacked shares by the human visual system. However, most visual cryptography techniques only encode the binary secret image, and the shares are larger than the secret image. In addition, the shares are meaningless as they look like random noise images. For security purposes, secret information cannot be revealed from a single share. Nevertheless, a cheating problem might possibly occur in a particular situation where a dishonest participant could create a fake secret image in order to cheat an honest participant. In this dissertation, we propose two algorithms to solve the above issue. Our first algorithm is a color visual cryptography technique that encodes the color secret image into meaningful shares. This algorithm is based on a color halftoning technique and a coding pattern. The color halftoning transforms the color secret image into the color halftone secret image, and then the color filtering is performed in order to classify the color information. After that the coding pattern is employed to encode the color secret pixel and the cover pixel. In our experimental results, our algorithm can encode the color secret image into meaningful shares. We can make the size of the meaningful share stay fixed to the size of the color secret image by color filtering and the coding pattern. Moreover, our algorithm presents three patterns which produce better visual equality for each meaningful share. It also allows a user to produce a different secret image/share with the desired visual effects. In visual cryptography, in order to hinder the cheating problems which occur as a result of cheater, Hu and Tzeng proposed a transformation which can change existing visual cryptography techniques into a cheat-preventing scheme [Hu2007]. This scheme produces an extra share for each participant used in the verification phase. However, for each participant, this extra share might cause a management issue and incur the risk of a fake share. Therefore, we propose a way to verify the scheme of Hu and Tzeng, which can be attacked, by using the fake extra share. Moreover, we improve the cheat-preventing scheme of Hu and Tzeng by referring to a special position according to the concept of the parameter. Instead of the extra share, the concept of the parameter can be used by each participant to effectively prevent cheating. On the other hand, the image data hiding technique can embed the secret message into the digital image. For military or medical applications the reversible data hiding technique is preferred because it offers the advantage to recover the original image after the message extraction, yet it still maintains the reversibility. In order to achieve reversibility, we propose a reversible data hiding algorithm that explores the spatial and frequency domains. Predictive coding is employed to embed the secret message in the spatial domain. The proposed algorithm applies an integer-to-integer transformation to convert the image originating in the spatial domain into the frequency domain. We then modify the high frequency coefficients only when embedding the secret message. Consequently, the low frequency coefficients are unchanged enabling the embedded image to preserve the image quality due to the hidden message. In addition, the algorithm further increases the embedding capacity because it takes advantage of both the spatial and frequency domains.
|Appears in Collections:||資訊科學與工程學系所|
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