Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19710
標題: 視覺密碼學與可逆式資訊隱藏演算法之研究
A Study of Visual Cryptography and Reversible Data Hiding Algorithms
作者: 王皓正
Wang, Hao-Cheng
關鍵字: visual cryptography
視覺密碼學
cheat-prevention
data hiding
reversible data embedding
predictive coding
wavelet transform
欺騙防制
資訊隱藏
可逆式資訊嵌入
預測編碼
小波轉換
出版社: 資訊科學與工程學系所
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摘要: 數位影像用於通訊技術,可將其視為具有機密的性質或是用來作為載體,藉此傳遞機密資訊。視覺密碼學(visual cryptography)是一個安全及有效的技術,將機密影像加密成分享影像並交給多位解密參與者,藉由特定的參與者集合,將分享影像疊合,即可用視覺的方式還原機密影像資訊。然而,許多視覺密碼學技術只能夠針對二元機密影像進行分享,產生分享影像在視覺上則是無意義類似雜訊的影像且會有大小擴張的現象。在安全性的部份,雖無法從單張分享影像反推算出機密資訊,但在特定情形下,則會有欺騙的情況發生,也就是不誠實的參與者假造機密影像,藉此欺騙其它誠實的參與者。 對此,本研究提出二個演算法用以解決上述的問題。首先,基於彩色半色調技術及特定樣式(pattern),提出一個彩色視覺密碼學技術將彩色機密影像編碼為有意義的分享影像。利用彩色半色調技術將彩色機密影像轉換為彩色半色調機密影像並利用色彩過濾(color filtering)的概念,將相似度高的色彩區域進行分類;隨後,再將機密像素及掩護像素利用編碼樣式進行編碼,以產生分享影像。由實驗結果顯示,彩色機密影像編碼成為有意義的分享影像後,藉由色彩過濾及編碼樣式使其大小與原始機密影像相同。此外,本演算法提出三種編碼樣式,參與者可依據不同影像的特性,使用不同的編碼樣式進行編碼。針對視覺密碼學中欺騙情況,Hu及Tzeng提出的轉換技術,將現存視覺密碼學技術轉換為避免欺騙的視覺密碼學技術[Hu2007]。此技術會產生一份額外的分享影像用於驗證階段。然而,對參與者而言,額外分享影像不僅在儲存及管理上帶來不便,且會提高被偽造的風險。對此,我們針對額外分享影像提出了一個欺騙方式,以證明Hu及Tzeng的轉換技術是可被欺騙;此外,我們提出了一個新穎的轉換技術,用以針對上述的問題進行改良。此轉換技術主要是將額外的分享影像改以參數的概念取代,並在驗證階段,利用參數對應至特定的位置,來達到避免欺騙的行為發生。此演算法利用參數概念可有效的降低被欺騙的風險,進而避免欺騙行為的發生。 另一方面,影像資訊隱藏(data hiding)技術是一項利用影像作為載體,用以傳遞機密資訊的技術。然而,針對某些不容許忍受些許修改的影像,如軍事、醫學等,可逆式資訊隱藏(reversible data hiding)技術使得影像在擷取出所嵌入的資訊後,可以回復至嵌入前的狀態,以達成「可逆性」。 為了實現「可逆性」,我們提出一個具高嵌入量的雙領域可逆式隱藏演算法。這個演算法除了利用預測編碼的空間域嵌入技術外,更利用整數小波轉換將空間域資訊轉換至頻率域,藉由保留低頻係數,修改高頻係數的方式來嵌入訊息。由於未修改低頻係數,故演算法不但可在空間域與頻率域嵌入訊息,進一步提升嵌入量,尚且在嵌入訊息後,仍能保持良好的影像品質。
The communication of digital images which can carry secret information has currently become a focus of research in the field of computer science. Digital images are used to carry the secret information, or even be the secret image. Visual cryptography is a technique which shares the secret image to each participant in a secure and effective way. The secret image is encoded into shares, and then distributed to participants in a qualified set where the secret information can appear on stacked shares by the human visual system. However, most visual cryptography techniques only encode the binary secret image, and the shares are larger than the secret image. In addition, the shares are meaningless as they look like random noise images. For security purposes, secret information cannot be revealed from a single share. Nevertheless, a cheating problem might possibly occur in a particular situation where a dishonest participant could create a fake secret image in order to cheat an honest participant. In this dissertation, we propose two algorithms to solve the above issue. Our first algorithm is a color visual cryptography technique that encodes the color secret image into meaningful shares. This algorithm is based on a color halftoning technique and a coding pattern. The color halftoning transforms the color secret image into the color halftone secret image, and then the color filtering is performed in order to classify the color information. After that the coding pattern is employed to encode the color secret pixel and the cover pixel. In our experimental results, our algorithm can encode the color secret image into meaningful shares. We can make the size of the meaningful share stay fixed to the size of the color secret image by color filtering and the coding pattern. Moreover, our algorithm presents three patterns which produce better visual equality for each meaningful share. It also allows a user to produce a different secret image/share with the desired visual effects. In visual cryptography, in order to hinder the cheating problems which occur as a result of cheater, Hu and Tzeng proposed a transformation which can change existing visual cryptography techniques into a cheat-preventing scheme [Hu2007]. This scheme produces an extra share for each participant used in the verification phase. However, for each participant, this extra share might cause a management issue and incur the risk of a fake share. Therefore, we propose a way to verify the scheme of Hu and Tzeng, which can be attacked, by using the fake extra share. Moreover, we improve the cheat-preventing scheme of Hu and Tzeng by referring to a special position according to the concept of the parameter. Instead of the extra share, the concept of the parameter can be used by each participant to effectively prevent cheating. On the other hand, the image data hiding technique can embed the secret message into the digital image. For military or medical applications the reversible data hiding technique is preferred because it offers the advantage to recover the original image after the message extraction, yet it still maintains the reversibility. In order to achieve reversibility, we propose a reversible data hiding algorithm that explores the spatial and frequency domains. Predictive coding is employed to embed the secret message in the spatial domain. The proposed algorithm applies an integer-to-integer transformation to convert the image originating in the spatial domain into the frequency domain. We then modify the high frequency coefficients only when embedding the secret message. Consequently, the low frequency coefficients are unchanged enabling the embedded image to preserve the image quality due to the hidden message. In addition, the algorithm further increases the embedding capacity because it takes advantage of both the spatial and frequency domains.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19710
其他識別: U0005-2206201009584400
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2206201009584400
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