Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19856
標題: 機密影像分享機制之研究
A Study of Secret Image Sharing Schemes
作者: 吳佳駿
Wu, Chia-Chun
關鍵字: I-En Liao
密碼學
Tung-Shou Chen
Der-Chyuan Lou
偽裝學
秘密分享
訊息認證碼
碎型浮水印
最佳化像素調整
可回復式的
可逆的
出版社: 資訊科學與工程學系所
引用: [1] L. M. Mayron, “Secure Multimedia Communications,” IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 76-79, 2010. [2] M. Naor, and A. Shamir, “Visual cryptography,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science on Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT''94, vol. 950, pp. 1-12, 1994. [3] C. Blundo, A. De Santis, and M. Naor, “Visual cryptography for grey level images,” Information Processing Letters, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 255-259, 11/30, 2000. [4] C.-C. Lin, and W.-H. Tsai, “Visual cryptography for gray-level images by dithering techniques,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 24, no. 1-3, pp. 349-158, 1, 2003. [5] W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security, 3rd ed.: Prentice Hall, 2003. [6] W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice, 5th ed.: Prentice Hall, 2010. [7] D. Artz, “Digital steganography: hiding data within data,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 75-80, 2001. [8] L. Weiqi, H. Fangjun, and H. Jiwu, “Edge Adaptive Image Steganography Based on LSB Matching Revisited,” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 201-214, 2010. [9] M. Barni, G. Doerr, and I. J. Cox, “Editorial Steganography and digital watermarking,” IEE Proceedings on Information Security, vol. 153, no. 3, pp. 75-76, 2006. [10] N. F. Johnson, and S. Jajodia, “Exploring steganography: Seeing the unseen,” Computer, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 26-34, 1998. [11] A. Martin, G. Sapiro, and G. Seroussi, “Is image steganography natural?,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 2040-2050, 2005. [12] D.-C. Lou, N.-I. Wu, C.-M. Wang, Z.-H. Lin, and C.-S. Tsai, “A novel adaptive steganography based on local complexity and human vision sensitivity,” Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 83, no. 7, pp. 1236-1248, 2010. [13] Z.-G. Qu, X.-B. Chen, X.-J. Zhou, X.-X. Niu and Y.X. Yang, “Novel quantum steganography with large payload,” Optics Communications, vol. 283, no. 23, pp. 4782-4786, 2010. [14] N. Hopper, L. von Ahn, and J. Langford, “Provably Secure Steganography,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 662-676, 2009. [15] M. Ramkumar, and A. N. Akansu, “Signaling methods for multimedia steganography,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 1100-1111, 2004. [16] T. Jamil, “Steganography: the art of hiding information in plain sight,” IEEE Potentials, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 10-12, 1999. [17] P. Marwaha, “Visual cryptographic steganography in images,” 2010 International Conference on Computing Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT), pp. 1-6, Bangalore, India, July 2010. [18] A. Cheddad, J. Condell, K. Curran, and P. M. Kevitt, “Digital image steganography: Survey and analysis of current methods,” Signal Processing, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 727-752, 2010. [19] A. Shamir, “How to share a secret,” Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 612-613, 1979. [20] C.-C. Thien, and J.-C. Lin, “Secret image sharing,” Computers & Graphics, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 765-770, 2002. [21] C.-C. Thien, and J.-C. Lin, “An image-sharing method with user-friendly shadow images,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1161-1169, 2003. [22] C.-C. Lin, and W.-H. Tsai, “Secret image sharing with steganography and authentication,” Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 405-414, 2004. [23] C.-N. Yang, T.-S. Chen, K. H. Yu, and C.-C. Wang, “Improvements of image sharing with steganography and authentication,” Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 1070-1076, 2007. [24] C.-C. Chang, Y.-P. Hsieh, and C.-H. Lin, “Sharing secrets in stego images with authentication,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 3130-3137, 2008. [25] C.-C. Thien, and J.-C. Lin, “A simple and high-hiding capacity method for hiding digit-by-digit data in images based on modulus function,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 2875-2881, 2003. [26] N.-I. Wu, and M.-S. Hwang, “Data hiding: current status and key issues,” International Journal of Network Security, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2007. [27] C.-K. Chan, and L. M. Cheng, “Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 469-474, 2004. [28] P.-Y. Lin, and C.-S. Chan, “Invertible secret image sharing with steganography,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 31, no. 13, pp. 1887-1893, 2010. [29] P.-Y. Lin, J.-S. Lee, and C.-C. Chang, “Distortion-free secret image sharing mechanism using modulus operator,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 886-895, 2009. [30] D. Kundur, and D. Hatzinakos, “Digital watermarking for telltale tamper proofing and authentication,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1167-1180, Jul 1999. [31] H. T. Lu, R. M. Shen, and F. L. Chung, “Fragile watermarking scheme for image authentication,” Electronics Letters, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 898-900, Jun, 2003. [32] C.-T. Hsu, and J.-L. Wu, “Hidden digital watermarks in images,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 58-68, 1999. [33] J.-B. Feng, I.-C. Lin, C.-S. Tsai, and M.-S. Hwang, “Reversible watermarking: current status and key issues,” International Journal of Network Security, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 161-170, 2006. [34] C.-C. Wu, S.-J. Kao, W.-C. Kuo, and M.-S. Hwang, “A Robust-Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Image Authentication,” Proceedings of The Third International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control (ICICIC 2008), Dalian, China, pp. 176, June 18-20, 2008. [35] K. C. Liao, W. B. Lee, and C. W. Liao, “Security of fragile watermarking scheme for image authentication,” Imaging Science Journal, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 129-133, Sep, 2006. [36] M. Nishio, Y. Ando, N. Tsukamoto, and H. Kawashima, “Studies on digital watermark embedding intensity against image processing and image deterioration,” Jpn. J. Radiol. Technol.,vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 500, Apr, 2004. [37] R. Ramasamy, and A. P. Muniyandi, “Computing the Modular Inverse of a Polynomial Function over GF(2P) Using Bit Wise Operation,” International Journal of Network Security, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 107-113, 2010. [38] C.-Y. Lee, and P. K. Meher, “Efficient bit-parallel multipliers over finite fields GF(2m),” Computers & Electrical Engineering, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 955-968, 2010. [39] L. Chiou-Yng, and P. K. Meher, “Fault Tolerant Dual Basis Multiplier Over GF (2m),” IEEE Circuits and Systems International Conference on Testing and Diagnosis, Chengdu , China, pp. 1-4, April 2009. [40] T. Conway, “Galois field arithmetic over GF(pm) for high-speed/low-power error-control applications,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 709-717, 2004. [41] A. Reyhani-Masoleh, and M. A. Hasan, “Low complexity bit parallel architectures for polynomial basis multiplication over GF(2m),” IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 945-959, 2004. [42] L. Chiou-Yng, “Low complexity bit-parallel systolic multiplier over GF(2m) using irreducible trinomials,” IEE Proceedings on Computers and Digital Techniques, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 39-42, 2003. [43] C. Y. Lee, C. W. Chiou, J. M. Lin, and C.-C. Chang, “Scalable and systolic Montgomery multiplier over GF(2m) generated by trinomials,” IET Circuits, Devices & Systems, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 477-484, 2007. [44] R.-Z. Wang, and C.-H. Su, “Secret image sharing with smaller shadow images,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 551-555, 2006. [45] C.-N. Yang, and C.-B. Ciou, “A comment on "Sharing secrets in stegoimages with authentication",” Pattern Recognition, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 1615-1619, 2009. [46] E. Khan, M. W. El-Kharashi, F. Gebali, and M. Abd-El-Barr, “Design and Performance Analysis of a Unified, Reconfigurable HMAC-Hash Unit,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 2683-2695, 2007. [47] B. Arazi, “Message Authentication in Computationally Constrained Environments,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 968-974, 2009. [48] C.-C. Wu, S.-J. Kao, W.-C. Kuo, and M.-S. Hwang, “Enhance the Image Sharing with Steganography and Authentication,” Proceedings of The Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIHMSP 2008), Harbin, China, pp. 1177-1181, August 15-17, 2008. [49] C.-C. Wu, M.-S. Hwang, and S.-J. Kao, “A new approach to the secret image sharing with steganography and authentication,” The Imaging Science Journal, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 140-151, 2009. [50] L. Harn, “Comment on "Multistage secret sharing based on one-way function",” Electronics Letters, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 262, 1995. [51] A. T. Sherman, and D. A. McGrew, “Key establishment in large dynamic groups using one-way function trees,” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 444-458, 2003. [52] J. He, and E. Dawson, “Multisecret-sharing scheme based on one-way function,” Electronics Letters, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 93-95, 1995. [53] T.-Y. Chang, M.-S. Hwang, and W.-P. Wang, “A New Multi-stage Secret Sharing Scheme Using One-Way Function,” ACM SIGOPS Operating systems Review, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 48-55, 2005. [54] M.-S. Hwang, C.-C. Chang, and K.-F. Hwang, “A watermarking technique based on one-way hash functions,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 286-294, 1999. [55] A. G. Weber. "The USC-SIPI Image Database. Version 5," http://sipi.usc.edu/database/. [56] Z. Eslami, and J. Z. Ahmadabadi, “Secret image sharing with authentication-chaining and dynamic embedding,” Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 803-809, 2011. [57] C.-C. Wu, S.-J. Kao, W.-C. Kuo. and M.-S. Hwang, “Reversible Secret Image Sharing Based on Shamir''s Scheme,” Proceedings of The Fifth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIHMSP 2009), Kyoto, Japan, pp. 1014-1017, September 12-14, 2009.
摘要: 偽裝學相似於密碼學,它包括了許多隱蔽通信的方法及技術,用來掩藏及偽裝訊息並使其不易被查覺出來,這兩種技術已經被廣泛地用來保護機密訊息及資料。隨著各種多媒體應用及網路通訊的發展,機密影像分享機制已成為一個重要的安全儲存及秘密通訊的數位影像技術。 Lin跟Tsai學者於2003年提出了一個新型的機密影像分享的技術,他們的方法除了具有影像機密分享的目的之外,同時也能達到偽裝學及影像認證的功能。接著,Yang及Chang等學者分別於2007年及2008年,前後提出了改進影像品質及影像認證的方法。但是這些方法都是使用傳統LSB資訊隱藏的技術,將分享的機密訊息及驗證碼藏入偽裝影像之中,因此會造成偽裝影像失真的情況。 因此,我們結合最佳化像素調整的資料隱藏技術,提出了適用於各種隱藏量及不同認證碼下,提高及改進偽裝影像影像品質的方法。相較於Yang等人、Chang等人及Lin跟Tsai學者的方法,從實驗結果清楚顯示我們的方法針對偽裝影像可以改進及提高4.71%、9.29%及11.10%的影像品質。同時我們也藉由許多實驗去驗證及證明我們的方法一樣具有影像認證的能力。換言之,我們提出的方法除了具有機密影像分享及影像認證的功能之外,同時也改善了偽裝影像的影像品質。 但是這些方法及技術都無法將藏入訊息後的偽裝影像以無失真的方式還原回原本的影像。最近,Lin跟Chan這兩位學者於2010年雖然提出了一種可逆的機密影像分享的技術來改進此缺點,然而,其方法除了參與者最大的個數受到限制的缺點之外,也必需考慮及避免像素值在進行機密分享的過程中發生溢位的情況。 為了可以達到無失真的目的,我們一開始先基於Shamir機密分享的機制,使用額外的記錄檔,提出了一種可逆的機密影像分享的技術。為了解決需要額外儲存記錄檔的缺點,最後,我們使用伽羅瓦域GF(28)的定理,提出了另一種可逆的機密影像分享的技術。此方法不僅可以達到無失真還原機密影像及掩護影像的目的之外,同時也具有良好的影像品質。從實驗結果及討論分析中,可以證明我們提出來的這兩種方法皆優於其它現有的方法。
Steganography can be viewed as cryptography. It includes a variety of secret communication methods that embed the existence of the message and makes it appear invisible. Both of them have been used to protect secret information. With the rapid growth of numerous multimedia applications and communications through Internet, secret image sharing has been becoming a key technology for digital images in secured storage and confidential transmission. In 2003, Lin and Tsai proposed a novel secret image sharing scheme. They claimed that their scheme can achieve the goal of secret image sharing with additional capabilities of steganography and authentication. Yang et al. further proposed an improved scheme in 2007. Afterward, Chang et al. also proposed another scheme to improve the authentication ability and visual image quality in 2008. However, the stego-images are obtained by directly replacing the least-significant-bit planes (LSB) of cover-images with secret data and authentication code in most schemes, which will result in the distortion of the stego-images. Therefore, we proposed a novel secret image sharing scheme by applying optimal pixel adjustment process to enhance the image quality under different payload capacity and various authentication bits conditions. The experimental results showed that the proposed scheme has improved the image quality of stego images by 4.71%, 9.29%, and 11.10%, as compared with the schemes recently proposed by Yang et al., Chang et al., and Lin and Tsai. We also provide several experiments to demonstrate the efficacy of authentication capability of the proposed scheme. In other words, the proposed scheme maintains the secret image sharing and authentication ability while enhances the image quality. In addition, there is a common problem in both schemes, that is, the stego-images cannot recover to their original states. Recently, Lin and Chan proposed an invertible secret image sharing scheme in 2010. Nevertheless, the maximum number of participant is limited and the overflow situation must be considered in the secret sharing phase. Then a reversible secret image sharing based on Shamir's scheme is developed in this dissertation. The proposed scheme can achieve lossless reversible for cover image and secret image rely on location map. Finally, a reversible secret image sharing based on Galois Field GF (2^8) scheme without location map is also designed. The proposed scheme not only retrieves the original cover image and secret image, but also achieves the better image quality. According to the experimental simulations and discussions, we show that the proposed schemes have significantly better performance than the others.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/19856
Appears in Collections:資訊科學與工程學系所

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.