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Expression of tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX) affects capsaicin-induced growth inhibition in gastric cancer cells
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|摘要:||Tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX) 是一個存在於癌細胞膜上的蛋白，在過去的研究發現 tNOX 的活性及蛋白表現和癌細胞的生長息息相關，過度表現 tNOX 會導致非癌化細胞的轉型而使細胞具有侵犯性，而以 RNA干擾技術（RNAi）抑制 tNOX 表現，則會減弱 HeLa 細胞的生長與移動能力。除此之外，一些抑癌藥物 capsaicin、EGCG 等被發現會抑制tNOX 的活性與表現，同時也導致癌細胞的生長抑制與細胞凋亡，但 tNOX 與這些藥物造成的生長抑制之間的相關性卻並不清楚，因此在本篇研究之中，利用胃癌細胞株做為實驗模式，我們探討 capsaicin 所引發的生長抑制現象與tNOX 間的關聯性，
實驗的結果證實 capsaicin 的處理可在 SNU-1 與 TMC-1 之中引發生長抑制的現象。探討抑制的起因發現capsaicin 會導致 SNU-1 與 TMC-1 的細胞週期停滯在 G0/G1， 並調控其相關的基因表現。此外，capsaicin 的處理會在 SNU-1 造成活性氧分子（ROS）的增加、粒線體膜電位（MMP）的下降並引發細胞凋亡，但卻不影響另一胃癌細胞株 TMC-1。
為了釐清 TMC-1 細胞抗capsaicin 的原因，基於先前研究所推論的 capsaicin 與 tNOX 之間的相關性，我們進一步去分析 capsaicin 處理與 tNOX 表現之間的關聯。實驗結果證實在 TMC-1 之中 tNOX 的蛋白與 mRNA 表現是不受 capsaicin 所抑制，因此我們推測 tNOX對於 TMC-1 抗 capsaicin 能力中扮演一個重要的角色。透過 shRNA 抑制 tNOX 的基因表現，我們發現 tNOX-knockdown 的結果會導致 TMC-1 細胞對 capsaicin 的處理變的較為敏感，Capsaicin 刺激 tNOX knock down TMC-1 細胞會有更明顯的生長抑制現象，甚至造成ROS 的增加、MMP的下降，進而引發 細胞凋亡。由這些實驗證實，癌細胞中tNOX 的表現對於避免 capsaicin 所造成的細胞凋亡具有相當重要性。|
Previous studies had revealed that activity and protein expression of tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX) were closely related to growth of cancer cells. Overexpression tNOX induced transformation in non-cancer cells and knock down tNOX by RNA interference (RNAi) reduced cell growth and migration in HeLa cells. In addition, anti-tumor drugs such as capsaicin, EGCG were found to not only inhibit tNOX activity and protein level but also lead to growth inhibition and apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the correlation between growth inhibition by these drugs and tNOX is not clear. In this project, we studied the correlation between capsaicin-induced growth inhibition and tNOX protein in gastric cancer cell lines. Our results showed that capsaicin treatment induced growth inhibition as well as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase in SNU-1 and TMC-1. We also showed that capsaicin mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and apoptotic signaling in SNU-1 but not in TMC-1. Base on previous studies demonstrating an association of cell growth and tNOX, we analyzed protein level of tNOX and established that capsaicin was unable to induce tNOX down-regulation in TMC-1. To confirm the role of tNOX in capsaicin-resistant TMC-1 cells, we supressed tNOX gene expression by shRNA and found that TMC-1 cells became more sensitive to capsaicin treatment. In tNOX knock down TMC-1 cells, capsaicin treatment induced greater growth inhibition, as well as generation of ROS, changes in MMP, and apoptosis. Our results suggested that the expression of tNOX in cancer cells was importance for capsaicin-mediated apoptosis.
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