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Evaluating prey luring performance of cribellate webs built by nocturnal Psechrus clavis
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|摘要:||顏色訊號在同種及不同種動物的溝通中扮演重要的角色。前人研究指出有些日行性圓網蜘蛛會利用鮮豔的體色或醒目的隱帶來吸引以視覺訊號為主的訪花昆蟲；而某些夜行性蜘蛛的醒目斑點也證實在夜間具有色誘獵物的功能。但對於蜘蛛網在夜間是否也具有吸引昆蟲之功能，卻沒有人進行研究。鎖孔褸網蛛 (Psechrus clavis)是一種夜行性蜘蛛，在深色的腹部中央，有一條相對明顯的黃白色亮帶，其在夜間會以腹部朝上的姿勢待在水平網上，展現出其腹部亮帶。而且褸網蛛利用其篩絲所結的網，無論是白天或晚上都很顯眼。本研究藉由野外操控實驗來探討鎖孔褸網蛛腹部亮帶以及醒目的蜘蛛網在夜間是否具有吸引獵物的功能。結果顯示腹部亮帶和蜘蛛網都具有很高的反射率，在夜間獵物的視覺中看起來很明顯，且在遮蔽蜘蛛網的光訊號後會顯著的降低獵物吸引率。總結來說，鎖孔褸網蛛能夠在夜間光強度較低的環境下，透過製作具有醒目顏色訊號的陷阱來誘引及捕捉獵物，而動物會利用所分泌之物質在夜間作為視覺誘引物來捕捉獵物則是首次被報導。|
Body colorations play an important role in predator-prey dynamics. Recent studies show that in some diurnal orb web spiders conspicuous body coloration and web decorations can visually lure prey. In nocturnal system, the bright body color patterns of some spiders had been empirically demonstrated to function to visually lure prey. Psechrus clavis is a nocturnal cribellate spider which has a dark body with bright ventral line, which concealed during daytime but exposed during nighttime. The webs constructed by Psechrus spiders are composed of cribellate silks and are visually very conspicuous. I wonder whether such webs could function to visually lure prey during the night and I conducted a field manipulative study on P. clavis to test this hypothesis. There were four treatments in this study to evaluate prey luring performance of P. clavis and its web. I manipulated the presence of P. clavis and changed the color signal of webs by applying carbon powder. Infra-red video cameras were used to monitor the prey interception rates of P. clavis webs in four treatments during nighttime (08:00 pm–04:00 am). The results show that the conspicuous webs of the nocturnal spider P. clavis can lure prey, and both the bright body coloration and cribellate webs function interactively as a visual lure to attract nocturnal insects. This study is the first to empirically demonstrate that animals can use the substances produced by themselves to visually lure prey at night.
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