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標題: 競爭能力.關係能力與競爭優勢
Competitive Capability, Relational Capability and competitive Advantage
作者: 陳依萍@20050804
Chen, Yi-Ping
關鍵字: 創新能力
Innovative Capability
Learning Capability
International Capability
Relational Capability
Competitive Advantages
出版社: 企業管理學系研究所
摘要: 資源基礎觀點以廠商的資源為基礎作為競爭優勢的來源,著重在個別廠商為分析的單位,但資源除了可由內部自行發展,亦有可能從外部市場購置或由合作發展而得。而在以合作發展獲得資源方面,正如「關係」觀點所強調的,認為廠商間的往來可促成夥伴關係的建立,藉此獲得緊密連結,產生競爭優勢,換句話說,此觀點也間接促成了資源基礎觀點與關係觀點的連接。事實上,隨著企業經營環境的不斷變遷,企業也逐漸體認到自身資源的有限,無法以單打獨鬥的方式來進行競爭。因此除了由廠商內部所擁有的競爭能力來形成競爭優勢外,組織之間的互動、合作和知識分享,所培養出的關係能力,亦有可能與現有的創新能力、學習能力、國際化能力產生一種配適效果,使競爭優勢更為增強。 故本研究先分別探討創新能力、學習能力、國際化能力及關係能力對競爭優勢的影響,再深入討論競爭能力、關係能力與競爭優勢之間的關係和配適度。對製造業進行郵寄問卷調查,以112份有效回收問卷進行實證分析。研究結果發現:創新能力、學習能力、國際化能力及關係能力皆有助於競爭優勢的建立。並且關係能力也與創新能力及學習能力產生良好的配適效果。此外,由於國際化能力需與國外廠商連結往來,其中涉及相當多的變數,如:語言、文化等,在本研究中並未加以考慮,而國際化能力和競爭優勢間亦有可能存在非線性關係,這些可能是導致關係能力與國際化的能力的配適效果不佳的原因之一。
Proponents of the RBV have emphasized that competitive advantage results from those resources within the firm and viewed the firm as the primary unit of analysis. However, a firm's critical resources may extend beyond firm boundaries and may be embedded in interfirm resources and routines. When the firm is willing to make interaction with partners, as the main idea of the relational perspective, the competitive advantages are linked to the close ties of each other. Thus, the RBV have a strong association with the relational view. In fact, as the intensifying competition and the resource limitations of the firm, it is no longer sufficient to survive along. We argue that an increasingly important unit of analysis form understanding competitive advantage is the relationship between firms and identify potential sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. The study population comprised manufacturing firms with exporting experience and a total of 112 usable responses were obtained. The findings suggest that innovative, learning, international and relational capabilities affect the outcomes of competitive advantage. The ability to interact with other companies-which we call relational capability - accelerates the firm's advantage with relevant effects on company innovativeness and learning. The research did not consider some effects including language and culture etc., and the existing literature provided that there is non-line relationship between international capability and competitive advantage. Those may offer the reasons why relational and international capabilities do not complement and enhance each other.
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