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標題: 山坡地農園地被植物之研究
Studies on the ground vegetation at slopeland farms
作者: 陳煌耀
Chen, Huang-Yau
關鍵字: ground vegetation
slopeland farms
population ecology
出版社: 植物學系
摘要: 山坡農耕地之地被覆蓋影響水土保育及永續經營。本研究探討台灣本島山坡地農園的地被植物,作為地被選留與管理之參考。自1998年7月至1999年12月間,調查198處山坡農地的地被,共記錄到86科446種(分類群)。各地區的坡地農園地被植物相有所差異,中、東及南區低海拔者較相似;中區中海拔與南區中海拔的農園地被與其他低海拔地區較為不同;中區中海拔的農園地被有較多的歸化植物。作物種類對地被組成的影響,以蔬菜園較明顯,此或與除草劑施用及整地作業較頻繁有關。柑桔園與檳榔園的地被組成較相似,優勢種多為較耐蔭的植物。於1999年2月至2000年5月間,在中區低、中海拔坡地農園記錄48科259種地被的物候期,開花期以6~9月為主;結實期以8~12月為主;落葉期以12月至翌年2月為主。 就地被植群消長方面而言,在瑞岩山區之農園,咸豐草等菊科植物持續優勢,此與其生命週期短、種子萌發力高、土壤種子庫持續有效補充,且除草劑清除其他植物的競爭等有關。在日月潭旁之荒廢坡地,白茅與舖地黍維持穩定覆蓋,即使冬季略枯黃,在1月過後仍由萌恢復;惟已有野桐、野牡丹等入侵,如果持續未受干擾,木本植物將可能逐漸佔優勢。在梨山果園,地被的自然演替趨勢為:台北水苦→大扁雀麥、多花黑麥草→大羊蹄、白花三葉草與火炭母草、青牛膽、台灣何首烏等蔓性植物;施用嘉磷塞可有效殺死地被,施用巴拉刈難以有效殺死多年生及蔓性植物;大扁雀麥與多花黑麥草在9~10月結實後為主要的種子萌發期, 11~3月為主要萌期;大羊蹄與毛地黃在9~11月結實後為主要的種子萌發期,冬季地上部枯死,2月過後萌;貓兒菊8~9月萌旺盛,11月至翌年2月為主要種子萌發期,冬季植株死亡情形不明顯。 本研究推坡地農園可選留之適生地被植物共有29科68種。梨山地區的果園地被管理,在陡坡如選留台北水苦等根系較淺的低矮地被,無法達到理想的水土保持效果,宜保留大扁雀麥、多花黑麥草等地被;在緩坡則可選留白花三葉草,或由台北水苦、早熟禾、鵝兒腸等混合之低矮地被。
The ground cover is necessary for soil conservation at slopeland farms. From July 1998 to December 1999, the ground vegetation composition of cultivated slopeland was investigated at low to medium elevation in Taiwan. In 198 research sites, totally 446 species (taxa), belonging to the 86 families, were recorded. The ground floras at low elevations in central, eastern and southern Taiwan are similar. The ground covers at medium elevations in central and southern Taiwan are distinct from that in other low elevation sites. There are more naturalized plants in medium elevation of central Taiwan. Heavy herbicide application and frequent soil disturbance would be the reason that the ground cover in vegetable fields is different from that under the other crops. Most of the dominant ground vegetation at betel nut plantations and orange orchards are more shade tolerant. From February 1999 to May 2000, the phenology of 259 species ground cover at cultivated slopelands in central Taiwan was recorded. The major anthesis stage was from June to September;the major seed firm stage was from August to December;and the major blight stage was from December to next February. Based on the monitoring of vegetational changes in Ruiyan, Bidens pilosa, Siegesbeckia orientalis and Ageratum conyzoides, etc., have short life cycle, high germinability and persistent soil seed bank, and the other competitive perennials were also killed by herbicides. On the slopeland near Sun Moon Lake, Imperata cylindrica and Panicum repens blighted in the winter,but recovered by sprouting from the rhizomes in next spring. Seedlings of Mallotus japonicus and Melastoma candidium have invaded, and may dominate gradually. In orchards of Lishan, the tendency of ground cover change was from Vernonia persica to Bromus catharticus, Lolium multiflorum, and then to Rumex obtusifolius, Trifolium repens and trailing plants. Based on the survey of population dynamics of the naturalized plants in Wushe and Lishan, Bromus catharticus and Lolium multiflorum germinated from September to October, sprouted from November to next March;Rumex obtusifolius and Digitalis purpurea mostly germinated from September to November, blighted in the winter, and recovered by sprouting from the rhizomes in next February;Hypochoeris radicata mostly germinated from November to next February, sprouted from August to September, and the blight in the winter was not obvious. Totally 68 species, belonging to the 29 families, are suggested as adaptable cover plants at slopeland farms in Taiwan. In Lishan, Bromus catharticus and Lolium multiflorum are recommended to retain on steep slopes;and Trifolium repens or the plants including Vernonia persica, Poa annua and Stellaria aquatica are suggested to retain on gentle slopes.
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所



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