請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/20650
標題: 台灣放牧牛之攝食植物種類及放牧對植被的影響
Studies on grazing plants by Cattle and the effects of grazing in Taiwan
作者: 陳文民
Chen, wen-min
關鍵字: cattle

grazing
plant community
放牧
植群
出版社: 植物學系
摘要: 放牧牛隻採食植物會造成植群的減少,並對植物的形態、大小產生影響。踐踏會造成土壤裸露、土壤密實與植物傷亡。為瞭解台灣地區放牧牛隻攝食植物種類及放牧對植被的影響,調查台中、花蓮、屏東三地放牧地區植被組成,瞭解在放牧地區的物種組成,實地觀察牛群攝食行為及採食痕跡,紀錄牛隻攝食的植物種類,定期調查台南畜產試驗所林下放牧後植被變化,以瞭解放牧對植被的影響。 台中、花蓮、屏東三地植被調查結果顯示,放牧地區植物覆蓋比率,禾本科佔64%,菊科佔17%,共佔81%為最主要的組成。 在放牧地區紀錄到的植物種類有140種,牛隻不食的有19種,攝食的有31種。牛群攝食以禾本科為主,其餘種類攝食次數較少。 將植群進行群團分析,將調查到的植群分成7個群團 (A-F),部分放牧區與未放牧區、放牧恢復區相似度較高,顯示放牧壓力不大。部分放牧區與未放牧區、放牧恢復區有較大的差異,顯示放牧壓力較大。由實地觀察結果,F 群團在放牧與火燒因子共同壓力下,植群的退化演替更趨明顯,土壤裸露程度更加嚴重。 定期調查台南畜產試驗所放牧後植群的變化,結果顯示放牧牛隻對於植被組成並無明顯改變,惟各種植物的重要值有明顯變動。結果也顯示,放牧強度越強,植物重要值的變動與土壤裸露程度越大。由放牧期間的結果顯示放牧對植被的影響並不易立即調查到,需經一段時間才會完全顯現若與上述台中、花蓮、屏東樣區調查結果合併討論,推測若長期放牧或強度放牧,對於植被的組成會有明顯的改變。
The effects of grazing by cattle were decreased the quantity and made the size and facade change of plants. Trampling were injured to plants and made the soil naked and hardness. For understanding the grazing plants and the influence by cattle in the wild, we investigating the plants of wild and tracking the cattle grazing record in Pington, Hualien and Taichung. For the same goal we set the same time to investigate the community of plant after one month of grazing in TLRI (Taiwan Livestock Research Institute). The plants in the three region of Pington, Hualien and Taichung we investigating were 64% in Poaceae, 17% in Compositae. There were one hundred forty plants recorded. In the records, nineteen could be grazed and thirty-one could not be grazed, others were unknown. Using vegetation classification, we get seven groups of these plants (A-F). Some parts of grazing region similarity with ungrazing region are in the less grazing stress and some parts not similarity are in the higher grazing stress. The result indicates the grazing and environment stress effect the succession procession. By reason of location observation, the soil is naked and the plans are short in the F group region under both grazing and burning stress. Investigating the plant community in TLRI, the results indicate that the major organisms of the plant community are not change but the important values are different. If there is higher grazing stress, the more fluctuation of plants important value and naked regions of soil. According the spacing of grazing experiment, the effects of the grazing can't be investigated immediately after grazing. Combing the investigation of Pington, Hualien and Taichung, we can suggest that if a region grazing for a long time or in intensity grazing the organism maybe different before.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/20650
顯示於類別:生命科學系所

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