Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/20687
標題: 臺灣赤楊生態生理基礎之研究
A basis study on ecophysiology of Alnus formosana
作者: 廖天賜
Liao, Tien-Szu
關鍵字: photosynthesis
光合作用特性
water physiology
isozyme
morphology
水份生理特性
同功酵素
葉部解剖形態
出版社: 植物學系
摘要: 為明暸台灣赤楊能夠從台灣平地至海拔3000 m廣泛分布之機制,本研究從 其光合作用特性、水分生理特性、同功酵素及葉部解剖形態進行探討。光 合作用測得之結果,發現台灣赤楊具有高光飽和點( 1350 mmol m-2 s-1 )、高氣孔導度( 0.4 cm s-1 )及高光合速率( 21 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1 )之 特性,此三種生理性狀均較供試之其他林木( 300 - 1200 mmol m-2 s-1 ,0.05 - 0.35 cm s-1, 4 - 16 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1 )為高,而與C3型作 物( 1000 - 1750 mmol m-2 s-1,0.3 - 0.45 cm s-1, 10 - 23 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1 )較接近。台灣赤楊與C3型作物之光合速率隨葉綠素含量之 增加而增加,此趨勢與C3型作物相似,而屬中性之3型林木雖然其光合速 率有隨葉綠素含量增加而升高之勢,但較趨平緩,屬陰性樹種之鴨腳木, 其葉綠素含量雖較高,但其光合速率卻很低,顯示台灣赤楊與C3型作物同 屬陽性植物。光合作用對溫度之反應,以中部不同海拔之台灣赤楊四個種 源及相思樹,測得不同溫度( 15 - 35℃ )下之光合速率,結果發現四個 種源之光合作用最適溫度並無明顯差異。能夠維持80%以上光合速率之溫 度,在台灣赤楊為20 - 35℃左右,相思樹為25 - 35℃間,在15℃時,台 灣赤楊之光合速率較相思樹高出20%左右,呈現適溫較廣之特性。在短暫 低溫( 3℃ )逆境處理,比較其光合速率及葉綠素螢光Fv/Fm之變化,發現 兩種測定法所得結果相近,即台灣赤楊之光合速率降低比率( 約20% )較 樟樹之降低比率( 約50% )為低,顯示台灣赤楊對低溫較不敏感。比較鞍 馬山( 2000 m )及火炎山( 150 m )兩個台灣赤楊種源及樟樹之水分生理 特性,發現台灣赤楊具高氣孔導度,因其旺盛之蒸散作用導致其葉溫較樟 樹為低,但在缺水逆境時,台灣赤楊之葉片導度對缺水極敏感,其氣孔較 樟樹易關閉,因此其葉溫較樟樹為高。比較根系及莖部之水分導度,發現 台灣赤楊之根系及莖部輸導水分之能力較其他樹種強。選取台灣中部及宜 蘭縣境之思源啞口及南澳等地14個台灣赤楊種源之葉片,分析其過氧化② ,發現過氧化②之同功②譜有8個帶,計算平均距離及UPGMA之群叢分析, 可將14個種源分成五個群叢,中部之群叢與主要河川流域相關性較海拔為 高,即第一群叢以大安溪流域之鞍馬山三個種源及火炎山種源為主,第二 群叢為濁水溪流域之鳶峰、清境及霧社等三種源,第三群叢為大甲溪流域 之新佳陽、青山、四角林及后里等四種源,第四、五群叢分別為宜蘭縣境 之南澳及思源啞口種源,唯其種源內之變異亦相當大。再以中部不同海拔 四個種源之葉片,經SEM掃描拍攝之相片,觀測得氣孔密綜合上述之結果 ,可知台灣赤楊在台灣能夠從平地至3000 m廣泛之分布,其生態型分化之 影響較小,適應性之影響較大,已知適應之機制為其光合作用適應溫度範 圍廣,且其葉片具高氣孔導度及高光合速率,根、莖則具有高水分導度, 高光合速率可以抵消高溫所增加之呼吸消耗,高水分導度及高氣孔導度則 可維持高蒸散效率,以降低葉片溫度。
To understand the mechansm of Taiwan alder (Alnus formosana) that extensively distributes from sea leve to 3000 meters, the study discussed the characeristics of phoosynthesis, water physiology, isozyme and morphology. Considering the measurement result of phoosynthesis, the study found tha Taiwan alder had a high light saturation point (1350 mmol m-2 s-1), a high leaf conductance (0.4 cm s-1), and a high photosyntetic rate (21 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The values of hese three physological characeristics for Ta===========================wan alder were all higher than hose of other tee species (300 - 1200 mmol m-2 s-1, 0.05 - 0.35 cm s-1, 4 - 16 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1), but similar to the C3 crops (1000 - 1750 mmol m-2 s-1, 0.3 - 0.45 cm s-1 , 10 - 23 mmol CO2 m-2 s-1).Taiwan alder and C3 cops had the simlar tendency that the photosyntetic rate would be increased when chlorophyll content was increasing. However, for the neutral C3 trees, its increase tendency was more smooth. For a shade plant like Common schefflera(Schefflera octophylla), its chlorophyl content was wth high level, but its photosynhetic rate was quite low. The esults also showed that Taiwan alder and C3 crops belonged to a kind of sun plant.Considering he reaction of photosynthesis to temperature, te study measured photosynthetic rates in different temperatures (15 - 35 ℃) fo four Taiwan alder provenances and Taiwanacci (Aaia onus). h tetedpoveaneswer btanedfom ifernt lvaton i cetal awn Tereslsidicte ta hre eren sinifcnt iffrnce o te otiumtemeatue frphoosytesi aon for roenacs. o awanaldr h tmpratrefo manainng vr 8% f hotsnthti rte ee aout2 - 5? s frTaian ccia th empratr wa 2 -35? he epratre a at15?thephoyntetc ateo Tawanaderwas2% hghr hantht f Tian caia Incmpaiso ithTawa accia,Taa alerha a ier ang f gowh emprtu.========================After ivng etedproeans tmpoay eamet o ow emprtur sres (?, hesdy opard cagesof vFm or horohyl uoesene adphoosyteti rae Th fndngsinictedtat wo ifernt esurmet ethdsrech imiar eult t ean hatthedrese potoyheicrae o aiwn adr (bot 0%)ws lwe thantht f Cmhortre Cinammu capora (bot 50%. e eultrevaed hat aiwnadr wsles snstiv o lw tmeraue.The stdy opard ewatrphyioog ofto Tiwa lde povnane an Capor re otaie frm AnMarMontin n Hu-ye ounai. he eult shwd ta Tawanaderha ahig tomtalcnductnc. Bcuseof bndat vaorain, he ef tmeraureo Tawn aderws lwr antht o amportre. oeve, helea ondcanc ofTiwa lde ws xtmly enitve owatr trss.Te soa o Tawn adr ws aser ocloe ha Capor re s thtthelaf emprtur f Tiwn lde as igertha atofCapho ee As o teydali codcaceofthero ytemandsem,th sudyaso oun hatTawa ale ha astongrwatr tasmisin bilt thn thr tes.The stdy nlyzd heperxdas o lave or outen Tian ldr rovnnce eletedfom etra Twn adI-Ln e inldin S=====================================yanyku adNano. h reuts hoedtha he ymgrm o eoidsehadegtbnds Th ouren povnaceswre rope nofiv cusesb usn clseig aaysi. heproeanc sletedfom enra Tawn wsmor corlatdwit mjo rie bainthn eeatin.Fo th irs luser,te mjr povnacesdstrbuedalogTa-n ivr bsn, uh a Anmr Mutai ad ou-e Montin Th ecod luterdstrbtedalogJuasir ivr asi,suc a Yanfn, Cinjn an Wsh. Tethid cuterditrbutdalog a-hiasrea bai, schasShicayong Cinsan Sichoin,andHuli Te ourhandtheffhclstrs itiutd n Nno ad Siuanaku,resetivly Hwevr th vaitio wthn teproenac wa qit lag. Te suy asousd laes f ou prvnanes eectd ro difren eevtiosof enta Tawa t mesre Summariig te eslts he tuy btand tefolowigconlsios:(1 Tawn ade hd a xtesie istiutinfro se eve o 300meers (2)Th iflune o eotpiceoluin ws sal, u h iflenc f aapablit as ruia. ()Teaaptve ehans ofTawa ale wa tatpooyntess dape toawidr rne o empraur; isleaesha hihstoal ondcanc nd ighpotoytheicrae; t rot ndste ad ig wtercndutnce ()Hig hotsythticrte oud eutaizeth icres ofrspiatinconuptin aued yhig tmpratr. 5)Hih wtr cnuctncead hghstmatlconuctne cul minti hih vaorain rte olowr ea tepratre
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/20687
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