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標題: Multicountry Competitive Interaction and Firm Performance with a Multilevel Approach - The Moderating Role of Competitive Rhythm
作者: 陳明杰
Chen, Ming-Jie
關鍵字: competitive dynamics
multi-country competitive interaction
competitive rythm
AMC view
出版社: 企業管理學系所
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摘要: The examination of competence between firms has been the important research issue in the strategic management domain. However, prior research puts more efforts on examining firms' static strategic formation or capabilities more than directly examining firms' real competitive behavior. This study completely integrates related factors, including actions, firms, industries and countries, and further explores the competitive dynamic interaction between firms to fulfill the gap of prior research, which statically examines competence between firms, and to investigate the competitive interaction between firms as well as the effect of the competitive interaction between firms on focal firm's performance. Only a very few of previous studies focus on MNCs' competitive interaction in the global context, therefore, this study integrates both the fields of competitive dynamics and international business to explore the MNCs' competitive interaction in the global market. This study is the first competitive dynamic research to choose the international shipping container industry as the empirical research target. The news gathering of this study is retrieved from Shipping Digest R.O.C., the containers' company websites, and financial reports from year 2007 to 2008 by dividing into eight seasons. By employing structural content analysis, this study classifies the competitive actions into 21 different categories. They are price cut, raising prices, improving service, providing new service, rearranging the shipping lines, resuming shipping lines, runnig new shipping lines, stopping running shopping lines, joining fare conferences, being out of fare conferences, joining the strategy alliances, being out of strategy alliances, cooperating with firms in different industries, cooperating with firms in the same industry, merging and acquiring companies, enlarging shipping capacities, purchasing container ships, renting container ships, selling container ships, operating new harbors, and developing technology of manufacturing container ships. By designing the questionnaire, this study surveys employees of one of the top 20 container shipping firms as the respondents, and further classifies these 21 sorts of competitive actions according to questionnaire scores into strategically competitive actions and tactically competitive actions. This study is also the first study to categorize and name the competitive actions in global shipping container industry, which provides the global shipping container industry usefully practical contribution. Then, this study designates the global top 20 shipping container firms as research samples and adopts 153 MNCs-season samples to carries on the statistical analysis by the hierarchical regression. This study explores the effect of the action, firm, industry and country level variables on competitor actions in the market based on AMC (awareness-motivation-capability) view and further explore the effect of competitor actions on focal firm performance and the moderate effect of competitive rhythm (irregular) on the relationship between competitor actions and focal firm performance. The empirical results show: (1) all of the degree of focal firm strategic orientation, numbers of firms cooperating to take actions, and firms' market leadership negatively affect competitor actions; (2) both focal firm competitive actions and the degree of focal firm's internationalization positively affect competitors' actions; (3) focal firm's competitive actions positively affect its own performance; (4) focal firm's irregular competitive rythm negatively affect its own performance. This study takes MNCs as samples to investigate the multi-country competitive interactions among MNCs, and takes the competitive rythm as the moderating variable to realize the importance of exploring the multi-country competitive interactions among MNCs thoroughly, and fulfill the gap of prior series of competitive dynamic studies on firms' multi-country competitive interactions. The results provide rich practical implication and research future directions for competitive dynamic studies of the global context.
廠商間競爭分析一直是策略管理領域的重要研究主題,但過去研究大多僅著重於探討廠商靜態的策略形貌或能耐,此與市場上廠商實際的競爭行為並無直接關連。本研究完整地考量行動、廠商、產業與國家相關因素,進一步分析廠商間的動態競爭性互動,彌補以往僅專注於靜態的競爭者分析之研究缺口,更細緻地探究廠商間進行競爭性互動的實際狀況,以及對廠商績效的影響。此外,以往動態競爭系列研究鮮少探討多國企業跨國間的動態競爭性互動,而本研究藉由整合動態競爭與國際企業管理領域之相關因素,探討多國企業於全球市場的跨國競爭性互動。 本研究為動態競爭系列研究中,首次以全球定期貨櫃海運業為研究產業 ,並進行實證分析。全球動態競爭系列研究之樣本取得實為不易,故本研究於全球動態競爭系列研究之一般化上具有ㄧ定程度的貢獻。本研究的研究期間從2007年1月至2008年12月,共兩年,並分成8季加以探討。研究資料主要取自航貿週刊「2007年至2008年定期貨櫃海運新聞電子報」,以及相關定期貨櫃海運廠商的網路與財務報表資訊,並以結構內容分析 (structured content analysis) 法進行資料庫的建立。本研究將全球定期貨櫃海運產業之競爭性行動歸類成21種行動分類,分別為降價、漲價、改善服務、提供新服務、航線重整、復航、進入新航線、退出舊航線、加入費率聯盟、退出費率聯盟、加入策略聯盟、退出策略聯盟、異業合作、同業合作、購併、產能擴充、購買貨船、租賃貨船、出售貨船、建立港口及發展貨船技術。並透過設計問卷調查定期貨櫃海運產業從業人員,依問卷分數將上述21項行動種類進一步區分成策略性競爭行動與戰術性競爭行動,此亦為首篇研究將全球定期貨櫃海運產業的行動進行歸納、整理與命名,提供定期貨櫃海運產業豐富的實務貢獻。最後,經篩選研究樣本後,本研究選定全球前二十大定期貨櫃海運廠商為研究樣本,一共採取153個多國企業-季 (MNCs-season) 之樣本數,並以階層迴歸模式進行統計分析。 本研究以察覺、動機與能力 (awareness-motivation-capability; AMC) 觀點為主軸,探討多國企業之行動、廠商、產業及國家層次變數對於市場上競爭者行動數目的影響,並進一步探討競爭者行動數目對多國企業焦點廠商績效的影響,以及競爭性旋律 (不規律) 對競爭者行動數目與焦點廠商績效間關係的調節效果。實證結果發現:(1) 焦點廠商之策略性導向、競爭性行動的廠商家數及市場領導地位,會負向影響焦點廠商所面對的競爭者行動數目;(2) 焦點廠商之競爭性行動數目與國際化程度,皆會正向影響焦點廠商所面對的競爭者行動數目;(3) 焦點廠商之競爭性行動數目對於本身的績效表現具有正向影響;(4) 焦點廠商之不規律競爭性旋律對於本身的績效表現具有負向影響。 本研究以多國企業為樣本,探討多國企業間的跨國競爭性互動,並以競爭性旋律為干擾變數,細緻探究多國企業間競爭性互動的重要性,以及動態競爭系列研究所缺乏探討之廠商間的跨國競爭性互動過程,提供未來動態競爭相關研究更多元化的研究方向。
其他識別: U0005-0407200916424900
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