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標題: 臺灣本土性底棲藻類做為河川水質生物指標之研究
Native Benthic Algae as Bioindicators for Water Quality of River
作者: 賴雪端
關鍵字: Benthic algae
出版社: 植物學系
摘要: 本研究目的在於探討臺灣河川底棲藻類(包括石附生和砂附生藻類)與 其生態環境因子之相關性。 於中南部河川不同水質污染等級的十七個採 樣站,分別進行一整年底棲藻類與水質之月採樣,分析各採樣站之河川底 棲藻類相、生態歧異度、群落相似性及季節性變化,以探討如何應用底棲 藻類做為河川水質之生物指標,並在不同污染等級之河川採樣現場,以不 同著生基質進行基質著生試驗,同時亦藉由掃描式電子顯微鏡之能量光譜 技術,探討不同污染等級之底棲藻類,對於重金屬之累積能力。 藉由光學顯微鏡與掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察藻類之形態特徵,在180 份底棲 藻類樣品中,共發現178種藻類,包括98種矽藻(佔總藻類之55%)、42種綠 藻、19種藍綠藻及19種裸藻。為建立生物指標系統,各種不同種類之優勢 種底棲矽藻特別描述其於掃描式電子顯微鏡下殼壁微細構造及與分類特徵 。 而曾於17個採樣站的石附生或砂附生藻類族群中,出現相對豐富度大 於20%的優勢種共51種,經主成分分析與因素分析結果,可將此優勢種歸 納為三大生態優勢群,包括耐污性、非耐污性及中等耐污性等優勢種底棲 藻類,並將Watanabe等(1983)的矽藻群聚指數-DAIpo值,修正為臺灣河川 優勢藻類指數-RDAI 值(River DominantAlgae Index),可經由計算此三 大生態優勢群之RDAI值以評估臺灣河川水質污染等級,而相對豐富大於5% 之底棲藻類,亦可經由解釋率達82.9-89.8%之逐步複迴歸方程式預測 河 川污染指數。不同著生基質試驗結果發現,以表面扁平的白色小石子上所 培養之藻類,最接近自然狀況中的岸邊石附生藻類,且易於掃描式電子顯 微鏡下直接觀察藻類之群落。
In this study, the relationship between the benthic algae (included epilithic and epipelic algae) and the ecological environmental factors in rivers of Taiwan were investigated. Samples were collected monthly from seventeen samplingstations for one year. For applying the algal species as bioindicators, the algal flora, ecological diversity, community similarity and seasonal successionchange were studied. In addition, the algal communities grown on different artificially attached substrates culture on riverbed were also studied. The technology of energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer was introduced to analyze theheavy metal elements of attached algae growing in varios polluted rivers. A total of 178 species from 180 samples were identified using light microscopyand scanning electron microscopy. It included 98 species of diatoms (which show55 % of total algae), 42 species of green algae, 19 species of blue-green algae, and 19 species of euglena. For suggesting which algal species as bioindicators, the dominant species of various benthic diatoms were described the valvestructure using the scanning electron microscopy especially. Fifty-one dominantspecies achieved a relative abundance higher than 20% in the epilithic or epipelic algal assemblages. On the basis of principal components analysis (PCA)and factor analysis (FA), we found 51 algal components which could be separatedinto three ecological dominant communities including pollution- tolerantspecies, unpollution-tolerant and moderate pollution- tolerant species. It wassuggested that RDAI index (River dominant algae index), modified from DAIpo(Diatom assemblage index of organic water pollution), and calculate the RDAI index from these three ecological dominant communities, could assses the water quality. Through the statistical analysis of stepwise multiple regression analysis(SMRA), some species of benthic show higher than 5% abundance could predict the water quality about 82.9-89.8% explanation. Besides, it was foundthat the little white stone was best fit for the test of artificially attached substrate andthe algae grown on it could easily be observed under the SEM.
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