Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21174
標題: 台灣西南海岸鹽濕地植群變遷之研究
Vegetation Changes at Coastal Wetlands in Southwestern Taiwan
作者: 林國彰
Lin, Kuo-Chang
關鍵字: Coastal Wetlands
海岸鹽濕地
Vegetation Changes
Land Subsidence
Greenery
植群變遷
地層下陷區
綠化
出版社: 植物學系
摘要: 台灣海岸鹽濕地之保育與經營已漸受重視。西南沿海濕地之植群隨環境而 變遷,特別是地層下陷的影響。本文就西南沿海鹽濕地之類型、植群、鳥 相、植群與鹽度及水位之關係、植物覆蓋度之季節性變化、植群演替趨勢 等加以探討。所得結果摘述如下: 1.台灣西南沿海地區的鹽濕地可大致 分為下陷區、河口區、荒廢魚塭、廢棄鹽田等類型。 2.初步在鹽濕地調 查到75科304種維管束植物。其中土沉香、五梨跤、欖李、卵葉姬旋花、 苦檻藍、細葉冬青菊、雲林莞草、齒唇芋蘭等為應妥加保育之稀有植物 。 3.鹽濕地植群的分布主要受鹽度與水位的影響。植群按耐鹽性可概分 為高度、中度及輕度三個耐鹽等級。高度耐鹽植物以紅樹林、鹽地鼠尾粟 、海雀稗、鹽定等為代表;中度耐鹽植物以雙穗雀稗、蘆葦、舖地黍為代 表;輕度耐鹽植物則以白茅、巴拉草為代表。 4.鹽濕地植物因東北季風 、乾濕季、水位、颱風等之影響,覆蓋度呈現明顯之季節性變化。火燒、 放牧、整地等干擾亦影響植物之消長。 5.鹽濕地之植群演替模式,依生 育地含鹽量與水位,可概分為乾生、濕生及鹽生三種演替序列。演替趨勢 尚受到地層下陷、颱風、火燒、淹水、整地、復耕等之干擾。 6.鹽濕地 植群與野生動物的關係密不可分,可提供鳥類棲息、蔽護、營巢與食物來 源。鰲鼓草澤區記錄到的鳥類有36科127種,包含多種保育類與稀有種; 四草廢鹽田為高蹺■之繁殖區,鎮安之廢棄蓮霧田為栗小鷺集體繁殖區。 這些棲地皆應妥加保護。 7.考量海岸鹽濕地的特殊環境,綠化植物的選 擇須具備耐鹽、耐濕、耐風及易於管理等特性。適用之木本植物有欖李、 五梨跤、土沉香、苦檻藍、台灣海桐、草海桐、黃槿、苦林盤等;草本植 物可用濱水菜、鹽地鼠尾粟、鹽定、台灣濱藜等。建議在鹽濕地增植稀有 植物,以兼顧保育與環境綠化功效。
Vegetation at coastal wetlands has changed with environment, especially land subsidence. Floral composition, salinity, water level, vegetation seasonal aspect and succession tendency at some coastal wetlands in southwestern Taiwan were studied. Salt marshes and mangroves exist at subsided areas, estuarine, abandoned fishing pond and abandoned salt field. Vegetation zonations at coastal wetlands are mainly dominated by salinity and water level. Coastal vegetation shows seasonal aspects. Vegatation cover is also fluctuated due to periodic fire, grazing and plowing. Nevertheless, xerosere, hydrosere and halosere all could be found according to salinity and water level in coastal wetlands. Succession tendency has been interrupted by subsidence, typhoon, fire, inundation, etc. Coastal wetlands provide adequate habitats for waterfowls. There are some rare bird species at Auku marsh. Abandoned salt field at Suchau provides nesting site for Himantopus himantopus; abandoned wax-apple field at Chunan serves as the egretry of Ixobrychus cinnamomeus. For the greenery of coastal wetlands, plant species should to highly tolerant to salt, inundation and strong wind. Adequate woody species are Lumnitzera racemosa, Rhizophora mucronata, Excoecaria agallocha, Myoporum bontioides, Pittosporum pentandum, Scaevola sericea, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Clerodendrum inerme; adaptable herbaceous species are Sesuvium portulacastrum, Sporobolus virginicus, Suaeda nudiflora and Atriplex nummularia.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21174
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所

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