Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|標題:||The Relationship between Multimarket Contact and Competitive Aggressiveness with Competitive and
|引用:||一、中文部分 張世龍、王穆衡、陳一平 (民96)。定期航運策略聯盟之探討。22-34，交通部運輸研究所，台北。 海運聯盟CKYH在韓國辦高峰會 (民98年4月14日) 。台灣新生報航運版。民98年4月14日，取自： http://www.tssp.com.tw/news/ shipping/200904/2009041401.htm 麥司克啟動運價割喉戰 (民97年12月05日) 。時報資訊。民97年12月05日，取自：http://tw.money.yahoo.com/news_article/adbf /d_a_081204_3_197fn 萬海航運前三季獲利16.9億 (民97年11月05日) 。中華日報航運電子報。民97年11月05日，取自：http://www.cdnsp.com.tw /news/newsold/97/9711/nw1105/05.htm 二、英文部分 Anand, J., Mesquita, L. F., & Vassolo, R. S. (2009). The dynamics of multimarket competition in exploration and exploitation activities. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 802-821. Ansoff, H. I. (1984). Implanting strategic management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Arrow, K. (1974). The Limits of Organization. W. W. Norton: New York. Barnett, W. P. (1993). Strategic deterrence among multipoint competitors. Industrial and Corporate Change, 2(2), 249-278. Barnett, W. P., & Hansen, M. T. (1996). The Red Queen in organizational evolution. Strategic Management Journal, 17(7), 139-157. Barnett, W. P., & McKendrick, D. G. (2004). Why are some organizations more competitive than others? Evidence from a changing global market. Administrative Science Quarterly, 49(4), 535-571. Bartlett, C. A., & Ghoshal, S. (1992). Matrix management: Not a structure, a frame of mind. Harvard Business Review, 68(4), 138-145. Baum, J. A., Calabrese, T., & Silverman, B. S. (2000). Don’t go it alone: Alliance network composition and startup performance in Canadian biotechnology. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 267-294. Baum, J. A., & Korn, H. J. (1996). Competitive dynamics of interfirm rivalry. Academy of Management Journal, 39(2), 255-291. Beamish, P. W., & Lupton, N. C. (2009). Managing joint ventures. Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(2), 75-94. Bernheim, B. D., & Whinston, M. D. (1990). Multimarket contact and collusive behavior. RAND Journal of Economics, 21(1), 1-26. Borgatti, S. P., & Foster, P. C. (2003). The network paradigm in organizational research: A review and typology. Journal of Management, 29(6), 991-1013. Bourgeois L. J. (1980). Strategy and environment: A conceptual integration. Academy of Management Review, 5(1), 25-39. Bothwell, J. L., Cooley, T. F., & Hall, T. E. (1984). A new view of the market structure-performance debate. Journal of Industrial Economics, 32(4), 397-417. Bradach, J. L., & Eccles, R. G. (1989). Price, authority, and trust: From ideal types to plural forms, Annual Review of Sociology, 15(4), 97-118. Brandenburger, A. M., & Nalebuff B. J. (1996) Co-opetition, New York: Currency Doubleday. Brass, D. J., & Burkhardt, M. E. (1992). Centrality and power in organizations. In N. Nohria and R. Eccles (Eds.). Networks and organizations: Structure, form and action. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Burt, R. S. (1982). Toward a structural theory of action. New York: Academic Press. Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural Holes: The social structure of competition. MA: Harvard University Press. Carroll, L. (1960). The annotated Alice: Alice’s adventures in wonderland and through the looking glass. New York: New American Library. Caves, R., & Porter, M. E. (1977). From entry barriers to mobility Barriers. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 91(2), 241-261. Chandler, A. D. (1962). Strategy and Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Chaturvedi, S., & Gaur, A. S. (2009). A dynamic modle of trust and commitment development in strategic alliances. IIMB Management Review, 21(3), 173-188. Chen, E. L., Katila, R., Mcdonald, R., & Kathleen, M. E. (2010). Life in the fast lane: Origins of competitive interaction in new vs. established markets. Strategic Management Journal, 31(13), 1527-1547. Chen, M. J. (1996). Competitor analysis and inter-firm rivalry: Towards a theoretical integration. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 100-134. Chen, M. J. (1988). Competitive strategic interaction: A study of competitive actions and responses. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland at Gollege Park. Chen, M. J., & Hambrick, D. C. (1995). Speed stealth and selective attack: How small firms differ from large firms in competitive behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), 453-482. Chen M. J., Lin, H. C., & Michel, J. G. (2010). Navigating in a hypercompetitive environment: The roles of action aggressiveness and TMT integration. Strategic Management Journal, 31(13), 1410-1430. Chen, M. J., & MacMillan, I. C. (1992). Nonresponse and delayed response to competitive move: The roles of competitor dependence and action irreversibility. Academy of Management Journal, 35(3), 539-570. Chen, M. J., Michel, J. G., & Stucker, K. (1997). Multinational management and multimarket rivalry: Toward a theoretical development of global competition. Paper presented at the Academy of Management Proceedings, Boston, MA. Chen, M. J., and Miller, D. (1994). Competitive attack, retaliation, and performance: An expectancy-valence framework. Strategic Management Journal, 15(2), 85-102. Chen, M. J., Smith, K. G., & Grimm, C. M. (1992). Action characteristics as predictors of competitive responses. Management Science, 38(3), 439-455. Chen, M. J., Su, K. H., & Tsai, W. (2007). Competitive tension: The awareness, motivation, capability perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1), 101-118. Chen, M. J., Yu, T., Michael, J. G., & Cannella, Jr., A. (2006). Cross-border competitive aggressiveness among MNCs: Market and resource considerations. Working paper. Cheng, K. H., & Chiao, Y. C. (2011). Competitive Network Characteristics as Predictors of Competitors'' Actions. Academy of Management 2011 Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, USA,2011/08/12-2011/08/16. Coleman, J. S., Katz, E., & Menzel, H. (1966). Medical innovation: A diffusion study. New York: Bobbs-Merrill. Cook, K. S., & Emerson, R. M. (1978). Power, equity and commitment in exchange networks. American Sociological Review, 43(5), 721-739. Cotterill, R. W., & Haller, L. E. (1992). Barrier and queue effects: A study of leading U.S. supermarket chain entry patterns. Journal of Industrial Economics, 40(4), 427-440. Cui, A. S., Griffith, D. A., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2005). The influence of competitive intensity and market dynamism on knowledge management capabilities of multinational corporation subsidiaries. Journal of International Marketing, 13(3), 32-53. Cullen, J. B., Jean, J. L., & Tomoaki, S. (2000). Success through commitment and trust: The soft side of strategic alliance management. Journal of World Business, 35(3), 223-240. Cyert, R. M., & March, J. G. (1963). A behavioral theory of the firm. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ. D’Aveni, R. A. (1994). Hypercompetition: Managing the dynamics of strategic maneuvering, New York: Free Press. Derfus, P. J., Maggitti, P. G., Grimm, C. M., & Smith, K. G. (2008). The red queen effect: Competitive actions and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 51(1), 61-80. Doktor, R., Tung, R. L., & Von Glinow, M. A. (1991). Incorporating international dimensions in management theory building. Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 259-261. Dubini, P. & Aldrich, H. (1991). Personal and extended networks are central to the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 6(5), 305-313. Edwards, C. D. (1955). Conglomerate bigness as a source of power. Business concentration and price policy, 331-352. Fernandez, N., and Marin, P. (1998). Market power and multimarket contact: Some evidence from the Spanish hotel industry. Journal of Industrial Economics, 46(3), 301-316. Ferrier, W. J. (2001). Navigating the competitive landscape: The drivers and consequences of competitive aggressiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 858-877. Ferrier, W. J., Fhionnlaoich, C. M., Smith, K. G., & Grimm, C. M. (2002). The impact of performance distress on aggressive competitive behavior: A reconciliation of conflicting views. Managerial and Decision Economics, 23(4-5), 301-315. Ferrier, W. J., Smith, K. G., & Grimm, C. M. (1999). The role of competitive action in market share erosion and industry dethronement: A study of industry leaders and challengers. Academy of Management Journal, 42(4), 372-388. Freeman, L. C. (1979). Centrality in social networks: Conceptual clarification. Social Networks, 1(3), 215-239. Fuentelsaz, L., & G''omez, J. (2006). Multimarket competition, strategic similarity and performance. Strategic Management Journal, 27(5), 477-499. Galbraith, C., & Schendel, D. (1983). An empirical analysis of strategy types. Strategic Management Journal, 4(2), 153-173. Galbraith, J. R. & Kazanjian, R. K. (1986). Strategy Implementation: Structure, Systems and Process. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing. Ghoshal, S. (1987). Global strategy: an organizing framework. Strategic Management Journal, 8(5), 425-440. Ghoshal, S., & Bartlett, C. A. (1990). The multinational corporation as an interorganizational network. Academy of Management Review, 15 (4), 603-625. Gimeno, J. (1999). Reciprocal threats in multimarket rivalry: Staking out “spheres of influence” in the U.S. airline industry. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 101-128. Gimeno, J. (2004). Competition within and between networks: The contingent effect of competitive embeddedness on alliance formation. Academy of Management Journal, 47(6), 820-842. Gimeno, J., & Jeong, E. (2001). Multimarket contact: meaning and measurement at multiple levels of analysis. In Joel A.C. Baum, Henrich R. Greve (Eds.). Strategic Management Journal, 357-408. Gimeno, J., & Woo, C. Y. (1996). Hypercompetition in a multimarket environment: The role of strategic similarity and multimarket contact in competitive de-escalation. Organization Science, 7(3), 322-341. Gnyawali, D. R., & Madhavan, R. (2001). Cooperative networks and competitive dynamics: A structural embeddedness perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(3), 431-445. Gnyawali, D. R., He, J., & Madhavan, R. (2006). Impact of co-opetition on firm competitive behavior: An empirical examination. Journal of Management, 32(4), 507-530. Golden, B. R., & Ma, H. (2003). Mutual forbearance: The role of intra-firm integration and rewards. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 480-495. Grant, R. M. (1987). Internationalization and performance among british manufacturing companies. Journal of International Business Studies, 18(3), 79-89. Gulati, R. (1995). Social structure and alliance formation patterns: A longitudinal analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(4), 619-652. Gulati, R. (1998). Alliances and networks. Strategic Management Journal, 19(4), 293-317. Gulati, R. (1999). Network location and learning: The influence of network resources and firm capabilities on alliance formation. Strategic Management Journal, 20(4), 397-420. Haveman, H.A., & Nonnemaker, L. (2000). Competition in multiple geographic markets: The impact on growth and market entry. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45(2), 232-267. Heggestad, A. A. & Rhoades, S. A. (1978). Multimarket interdependence and local market competition in banking. Review of Economics and Statistics, 60(4), 523-532. Hennart, J. F., & Larimo, J. (1998). The Impact of Culture on the Strategy of Multinational Enterprises: Does national origin affect ownership decisions. Journal of International Business Studies, 29 (3), 515-538. Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. E. (2005). Strategic management: Globalization and competitiveness. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western. Hout, T. M., Porter, M. E., & Rudden, E. (1982). How global companies win out. Harvard Business Review, 60(5), 98-108. Huber, G. P., & Daft, R. L. (1987). The information environments of organizations. In F. M. Jablin, L. L. Putman, K. H. Roberts, and L. Porter, (Eds.). Handbook of organizational communication, 130-164. Newbury Park, GA: Sage Publications. Jans, I., & Rosenbaum, D. (1997). Multimarket contact and pricing: Evidence from the U.S. cement industry. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 15(3), 391-412. Jayachandran, S., Gimeno, J., & Varadarajan, P. R. (1999). Theory of multimarket competition: A synthesis and implications for marketing strategy. Journal of Marketing, 63(3), 49-66. Kang, W., Bayus, B. L., & Balasubramanian, S. (2010). The strategic effects of multimarket contact: Mutual forbearance and competitive response in the personal computer industry. Journal of Marketing Research, 47(3), 415-427. Karnani, A., & Wernerfelt, B. (1985). Multiple point competition. Strategic Management Journal, 24(11), 548-570. Katila, R. (2002. New product search over time: Past ideas in their prime. Academy of Management Journal, 45(5), 995-1010. Katila, R., & Chen E. L. (2008). Effects of search timing on innovation: the value of not being in sync with rivals. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53(4), 593-625. Kiesler, S., & Sproull, L. (1982). Managerial response to changing environment: Perspectives on problem sensing from social cognition. Administrative Sciense Quarterly, 27(4), 548-570. Kirzner, I. M. (1973). Competition and entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kogut, B. (1989). The stability of joint ventures: Reciprocity and competitive rivalry. Journal of Industrial Economic, 38(2), 183-198. Kogut, B., & Sight, H. (1988). The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Journal of International Business Studies, 19 (3), 411-432. Kogut, B., & Zander, U. (1992). Knowledge of the firm, combinative capacities and the replication of technology. Organization Science, 3 (3), 383-397. Koka, B. R., & Prescott, J. E. (2008). Designing alliance networks: The influence of network position, environmental change, and strategy on firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 29(6), 639-661. Kostova, T. (1999). Transnational transfer of strategic organizational practices: A contextual perspective. Academy of Management Review, 24(2), 308-324. Loury, G. (1977). A dynamic theory of racial income differences,” In P. A. Wallace and A. M. LaMonde (Eds.). Women, minorities, and employment discrimination, 153-186. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. Luo, Y., & Park, S. H. (2001). Strategic Alignment and Performance of Market-Seeking MNCs in China. Strategic Management Journal, 22 (2), 141-55. Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135-172. Ma, H. (1998). Mutual forbearance in international business. Journal of International Management, 4(3), 129-147. Ma, H., & Jemison, D. (1994). Effects of spheres of influence and differentials in firm resources and capabilities on the intensity of rivalry in multiple market competition. Paper presented at tech annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas, TX. MacCrimmon, K. R. (1993). Do firm strategies exist. Strategic Management Journal, 14(52), 113-130. MacMillan, I., McGaffrey, M. L., & Van, W. G. (1985). Competitor''s responses to easily imitated new products: Exploring commercial banking product introductions. Strategic Management Journal, 6(1), 75-86. March, J. C., & Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations. New York: Wiley. Matsushima, H. (2001). Multimarket contact, imperfect monitoring and implicit collusion. Journal of Economic Theory, 98(1), 158-178. Mayer, R. C., Davis J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20 (3), 709-734. McGrath, J. E., Arrow, H., & Berdahl, J. L. (2000). The study of groups: Past, present, and future. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4(1), 95-105. McPherson, M. (1983). An ecology of affiliation. American Sociological Review, 48, 519-532. Miller, D., & Chen, M. J. (1996). The simplicity of competitive repertoires: An empirical analysis. Strategic Management Journal, 17(6), 419-440. Mizruchi, M. S. (1992). The structure of corporate political action. MA: Harvard University Press. Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1997). Social capital, intellectual capital and the creation of value in firms. Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings, 35-39. Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital and the organizational advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23 (2), 242-266. Ouchi, W. G. (1977). The Relationship between Organizational Structure and Control. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22(1), 95-113. Paik, Y., & Derick, S. J. (2004). Striking a balance between global integration and local responsiveness: The case of Toshiba corporation in redefining regional headquarters’ role. Organizational Analysis, 12(4), 347-359. Parise, S., & Henderson, J. C. (2001). Knowledge resource exchange in strategic alliances. IBM Systems Journal, 4(4), 908-924. Parker, P. M., & Röller, L. H. (1997). Collusive conduct in duopolies: Multimarket contact and cross-ownership in the mobile telephone industry. RAND Journal of Economics, 28(2), 304-322. Pfeffer, J., & Nowak, P. (1976). Joint venture and interorganizational interdependence. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21(3), 398-418. Porter, M. E. (1980). Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York: Free Press. Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. New York: Free Press. Porter, M. E., & Fuller, M. B. (1986). Coalitions and global strategy. In M. E. Porter, (Ed). Competition in global business, Boston: HBS Press. Powell, W. W. (1990). Neither Market Nor Hierarchy: Network Forms of Organization. In B. Staw and L. Cummings, (Eds). Research in organizational behavior, 295-336, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Prahalad, C. K., & Doz, Y. L. (1987). The multinational mission: Balancing local demands and global vision. New York: Free Press. Raab, J. (2004). More than just a metaphor: The network concept and its potential in Holocaust research. In G. D. Feldman and W. Seibel (Eds.). Networks of Nazi persecution: Bureaucracy, business, and the organization of the Holocaust, 321-339. London: Berghahn. Rhoades, S. A., & Heggestad, A. A. (1985). Multimarket interdependence and performance in banking: Two tests. Strategic Management Journal, 13(7), 483-498. Roth, K., & Kostova, T. (2003). The use of the multinational corporation as a research context. Journal of management, 29(6), 883-902. Saxenian, A. (1994). Regional advantage: Culture and competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). The theory of economic development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Schumpeter, J. A. (1942). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York: Harper. Schumpeter, J. A. (1976). Capitalism, socialism, and democracy (5th ed.). London: George Allen and Unwin. Scott J. T. (1982). Multimarket contact and economic performance. Review of Economics and Statistics, 64(3), 368-375. Shipilov A. V. (2009). Firm scope experience, historic multimarket contact with partners, centrality, and the relationship between structural holes and performance. Organization Science, 20(1), 85-106. Simmel, G. (1950). The Sociology of Georg Simmel (Trans.). New York: Free Press. Simon, H. A. (1985). What we know about the creative process. In R. L. Kuhn (ed). Frontiers in creative and innovative management, 3-20, Cambridge, MA: Ballinger. Smith, K. G., Ferrier, W. J., & Ndofor, H. (2001). Competitive dynamics research: Critique and future directions. In M. Hitt, R. Freeman, and J. Harrison (Eds.). Handbook of strategic management, 315-361, London: Blackwell. Smith, K. G., Grimm, C. M., Gannon, M. J., & Chen, M. J. (1991). Organizational information processing, competitive responses, and performance in the U.S. domestic airline industry. Academy of Management Journal, 34(1), 1-26. Starbuck, W. H. (1983). Organizations as action generators. American Sociological Review, 48(1), 91-102. Strickland, A. D. (1985). Conglomerate mergers, mutual forbearance behavior, and price competition. Managerial and Decision Economics, 6(3), 153-159. Thorgren, S., & Wincent, J. (2011). Interorganizational trust: Origins, dysfunctions and regulation of rigidities. British Journal of Management, 22(1), 21-41. Tichy, N. M., Tushman, M. L., & Forbrun, C. (1979). Social network analysis for organizations. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 507-519. Tsai, W., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: The role of intrafirm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41(4), 464-476. Uzzi, B. (1996). The sources and consequences of embeddedness for the economic performance of organizations: The network effect. American Sociological Review, 61(4), 674-698. Valente, T. W. (1995). Network models of the diffusion of innovations. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. Waston, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist view it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177. Wathne, K. H., & Heide, J. B. (2004). Relationship governance in a supply chain network. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 73-89. Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1994). Social network analysis: Methods and applications. MA: Cambridge University Press. Weick, K. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Wernerfelt, B., & Karnani, A. (1987). Competitive strategy under uncertainty. Strategic Management Journal, 8(2), 187-194. Yao, E., Ferrier, W. J., Yu, T., & Labianca, G. (2009). Competitive ties, competition networks, and competitive advantage. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management. Chicago. Young, G. (1993). Engaging a rival: Industry and firm specific predictors of rivalrous firm conduct in the U.S. software industry. Unpublished manuscript, University of Maryland, College Park. Young, G., Smith, K. G., & Grimm, C. M., (1996). “Austrian and industrial organization perspectives on firm-level competitive activity and performance. Organization Science, 7(3), 243-254. Yu, T., & Cannella, Jr., A. (2007). Rivalry between multinational enterprises: An event history approach. Academy of Management Journal, 50( 3), 665-686. Yu, T., Subramaniam, M., & Cannella, Jr., A. (2009). Rivalry deterrence in international markets: Contingencies governing the mutual forbearance. Academy of Management Journal, 52(1), 127-147. Zaheer, A., Gozubuyuk, R., & Milanov, H. (2010). It’s the connections: The network perspective in interorganizational Research. Academy of Management Perspectives, 24(1), 62-77. Zaheer, A., & Venkatraman, N. (1995). Relational governance as an interorganizational strategy: An empirical test of the role of trust in economic exchange. Strategic Management Journal, 16(5), 373-392. Zukin, S., & DiMaggio, P. (1990). Structures of capital: The social organization of the economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.|
|摘要:||Firms frequently compete with competitors in multiple markets. Prior researches for multipoint competition have proposed a concept of mutual forbearance, it means when same competitors meet in multiple markets, aggressive competition will be deterred; however, the empirical results do not seem to be conclusive. This study uses network perspective
to examine the theory of multimarket competition, further more stretching
multipoint competition to international context. In addition, this study introduces competitive dynamics as our main theory, and uses awareness-motivation-capability perspective to derive the hypothesis development.
This study choose the top 21 firms of global container shipping industry as the research sample. We use Cyber Shipping Guide database to collect shipping firm's news from 2007 to 2010, and uses it to classify competitors' actions of the global container shipping company into 24 different categories. Finally, we collected 1,506 news to analyze, our research sample are 333.
This research aims to explore how multimarket contact (MMC) affects focal firm's competitive action, at the same time, adding related variables from cooperation network and competition network as our contingency factors. The empirical finding shows: (1) focal firm has higher MMC with competitors will incur more focal firm's action; (2) when focal firm has higher centrality degree in cooperation network, it will weaken the positive relationship between MMC and focal firm's competitive aggressiveness; (3) when focal firm faces higher centrality in-degree in competition network, it will weaken the positive relationship between MMC and focal firm's competitive aggressiveness; (4) the greater competitive aggressiveness of focal firm, the better performance it has and (5) the higher centrality degree in cooperation network positively affects focal firm's performance.
In summary, by examining firms multipoint competition through embeddedness perspective, and extend competitive field to the international market, fulfilling the gap of previous researches of multipoint competition. This study integrates competition and cooperation among firms, provides the way firms adjust their strategies, and bring the container shipping industry a thinking point of coopetition.|
廠商經常與競爭者在眾多市場上進行競爭抗衡。先前許多研究針對多點競爭進行測試，提出相互容忍概念，即相同競爭者在眾多競爭場域相遇時，會產生遏止廠商間激烈競爭的現象，然而，實證結果卻無一致性定論。本研究試圖從網絡觀點來對多重市場競爭理論進行測試，並且進一步延伸多點競爭至國際市場。此外，本研究將以動態競爭當作主要核心觀點，並運用察覺、動機與能力觀點當作推論基礎。 本研究以全球前21大定期貨櫃航運廠商作為研究樣本，從Cyber Shipping Guide資料庫蒐集2007-2010年各航運廠商行動新聞資料來進行資料分析，並歸類出24項競爭性行動。最後，從3,502則新聞中擷取出符合本研究新聞數1,506則；研究樣本數為333筆。 本研究試圖探究跨國企業間多重市場接觸程度如何影響焦點廠商競爭積極性，同時，加入合作網絡與競爭網絡相關變數當作情境因子來對多市場競爭探討。實證結果發現：(1) 多重市場接觸程度越高，焦點廠商競爭積極性越高；(2) 焦點廠商於合作網絡內中心性程度越高時，會弱化多重市場接觸與競爭積極性的正向關係；(3) 焦點廠商於競爭網絡中的向內中心性程度越高，會強化多重市場接觸對競爭積極性的正向關係；(4) 廠商競爭積極性越高，對其績效越好及 (5)廠商合作中心性程度與廠商績效呈現正向關係 綜上所述，本研究利用網絡觀點來看廠商間多重市場下的競爭行為，並且將競爭場域延伸至國際市場，以其補足過去多點競爭文獻較少針對多國企業進行研究測試的不足。此外，本研究整合廠商間競爭與合作的獨特關係，提供廠商實務上調整的策略方向，並帶給定期貨櫃航運產業一個競合關係的思考點。
|Appears in Collections:||企業管理學系所|
Show full item record
TAIR Related Article
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.