Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21413
標題: 美國生態恐怖主義之立法研究
The Legal Research on the U.S. Ecological Terrorism Legislations
作者: 陳怡君
Chen, Yi-Chun
關鍵字: 生態恐怖主義
ecological terrorism
環境恐怖主義
恐怖主義
反恐法
美國「在聯邦土地上干擾伐木行為與使用危險或有害的設備罪」
美國「動物企業恐怖法」
environmental terrorism
terrorism
anti-terrorism act
extremely environmental protection groups
The Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act.
出版社: 法律學系科技法律碩士班
引用: 參考文獻 中文 書籍 1. 王菲菲譯,Noam Chomsky著,權利與恐怖 後911演講與訪談錄,商周出版,2004年。 2. 中國民用航空局政策法規司、中國民航科學技術研究院政策法規研究所著,恐怖主義行為的國際法律控制──國際航空保安公約體系:現狀、問題和前景,第一版,中國政法大學出版社,2012年。 3. 李惠宗,案例式法學方法論,新學林出版社,2009年。 4. 吳庚,行政法之理論與實用,第十一版,三民書局,2011年。 5. 何明修,綠色民主 台灣環境運動的研究,群學出版有限公司,一版,2006年。 6. 林利芝,法學英文辭典,新學林,2006年。 7. 孟祥森、錢永祥譯,Peter Singer著,動物解放Animal Liberation,關懷生命協會,1996年。 8. 張舜芬譯,Jonathan Barker著,誰是恐怖主義:當恐怖份子遇上反恐戰爭,初版,書林出版有限公司,2004年。 9. 張福昌,歐盟司法與內政合作─反恐議題解析,台灣商務印書館,2011年。 10. 黃瑤 等著,聯合國全面反恐公約研究 基於國際法的視角,第一版,法律出版社,2010年。 11. 楊永明,國際關係,前程文化事業有限公司,2010年。 12. 趙秉志 等編譯,外國最新反恐法選編,第一版,中國法制出版社,2008年。 13. 劉仁山、尹生、簡基松、鄧烈,國際恐怖主義法律問題研究,中國法制出版社,2011年。 14. 錢永祥、彭淮棟、陳真譯,Marc Mekoff著,動物權與動物福利小百科Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare,初版,桂冠,2002年。 15. 謝明珊譯,Jan Hancock著,人類與環境的權利Environmental Human Rights: Power , Ethic and Law,初版,韋伯文化國際出版有限公司,2009年。 16. 薛波 主編,元照英美法詞典,元照出版社,2003年。 期刊 1. 李茂生,風險社會與規範論的世界,月旦法學雜誌,第173期,2009年。 2. 李茂生,動物權的概念與我國動物保護法的文化意義,月旦法學雜誌,第94期,2003年。 3. 李太正,反恐怖主義之立法與相關問題,刑事政策犯罪研論文集(六),2004年。 4. 李丁讚、林文源,社會力的文化根源:論環境權感受在台灣的歷史形成1970-86,台灣社會研究季刊,第38期,2000年6月。 5. 吳瑾瑜,由「物」之法律概念論寵物之損害賠償,中原法學,第15期,2005年。 6. 何明修,台灣環境運動的開端:專家學者、黨外、草根(1980-1986)」,台灣社會學,第二期,2001年。 7. 林山田,論特別刑法肥大症之病因,法令月刊,39卷1期,1988年。 8. 柴松林,人權、人權基礎與人權譜系的擴增,新世紀智庫論壇,第十一期,2003年。 9. 高旺,「群體性事件」:抗爭政治學的視角,香港中文大學二十一世紀雙月刊,第十五期,2011年。 10. 徐光蓉,沒有選擇,哪來環境正義?,改革與前瞻 台灣智庫十周年研討會,財團法人台灣智庫,2011年。 11. 楊崇森,美國刑法之原理與運用,57 卷3期,2011年6月。 12. 廖元豪,多少罪惡假「國家安全」之名而行?─簡介美國反恐措施對人權之侵蝕,月旦法學雜誌,第131期,2006年。 13. 葉俊榮,憲法位階的環境權:從擁有環境到參與環境決策,19卷1期,國立臺灣大學法學論叢,1989年。 14. 陳秀容,近代人權觀念的轉變:一個社會生態觀點的分析,人文及社會學集刊,第九卷第二期,1997年6月。 15. 陳欣湉,後九一一時代人身保護令制度內涵的動態演進-美國聯邦最高法院Boumediene v. Bush判決評釋,法學新論,第28期,2011年2月。 16. 蔡東杰,東亞恐怖活動發展趨勢:宗教、民族與政治視角,第五屆「恐怖主義與國家安全」學術暨實務研討會,2009年。 17. 蔡育岱、譚偉恩,敵人刑法與安全化理論:國際實踐和理論衝突,國立中正大學法學集刊,2009年。 18. 鄭昆山,「環境犯罪」─ 在國際上、區域性及在國內運用刑事制裁以保護環境,東海大學法學研究,第8期,1994年。 19. 蘇顯星,台灣反恐怖行動相關法制立法過程探討,第八屆「恐怖主義與國家安全」學術研討會,2012年。 學位論文 1. 阮春潭,911後的美國反恐作為研究,國立政治大學國家安全與大陸研究所學位論文/碩士班,2004年。 2. 曾挺生,大規模毀滅性武器戰略發展與恐怖主義威脅之研究,中興大學國際政治研究所學位論文/碩士班,2005年。 3. 劉璧美,論湯姆.雷根的強動物權立場,國立中央大學哲學研究所碩士論文,2007年。 4. 陳品潔,後911時代反恐措施與人權保障之衡平--以美國法為中心,臺灣大學法律學研究所學位論文/碩士班,2008年。 5. 謝欣諺,布希政府防止擴散安全提議(PSI)之研究,中興大學國際政治研究所學位論文/碩士班,2005年。 網路資料 1. 中華民國保護動物協會網站,請參照http://www.apatw.org/index.asp (最後瀏覽日期:20121215)。 2. 李震山,論憲改與基本權利保障,行政院研考會與台大法律學院公法研究中心主辦,新世紀台灣憲改研討會,2004年10月,請參照http://www.rdec.gov.tw/public/Attachment/512016524071.pdf (最後瀏覽日期:20130602)。 3. 柴松林,人權、人權基礎與人權譜系的擴增,新世紀智庫論壇,第十一期,2003年11月,請參照http://www.ncsi.gov.tw/NcsiWebFileDocuments/da22f64f7eaee42d407e4c4a7d27976d.pdf(最後瀏覽日期:20130602)。 4. 林秀蓮,行政程序法有關聽證制度之檢討,頁3-4,請參照http://www.moj.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=102925&ctNode=28150&mp=001 (最後瀏覽日期:20130603)。 5. 徐光蓉,「沒有選擇,哪來環境正義?」,改革與前瞻 台灣智庫十周年研討會,財團法人台灣智庫,頁152,2011年,請參照http://www.taiwanthinktank.org/page/chinese_attachment_5/2348/1_5.pdf (最後瀏覽日期:20130615)。 6. 關於蓖麻毒素(Ricin)的介紹可參考美國疾病管制局(CDC)之網頁http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/ricin/chinese/facts.pdf (最後瀏覽日期:20130411)。 7. 關於沙林(Sarin)的介紹可參考CDC之網頁http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/sarin/chinese/pdf/facts.pdf (最後瀏覽日期:20130411)。 8. 中華人民共和國主席令第64號,中華人民共和國第九屆全國人民代表大會常務委員會第二十五次會議於2001年12月29日通過,自公佈之日起施行。刑法修正案(三)全文可參照http://www.fdi.gov.cn/pub/FDI/zcfg/zh/jbfl/P020060619551897509444.pdf (最後瀏覽日期:20130426)。 9. 中華人民共和國中央人民政府網站,http://big5.gov.cn/gate/big5/www.gov.cn/test/2005-06/28/content_10523.htm (最後瀏覽日期:20130128)。 10. 全國人大常委會關於加強反恐怖工作有關問題的決定(草案)詳見中華人民共和國人民政府網站 http://big5.gov.cn/gate/big5/www.gov.cn/jrzg/2011-10/29/content_1981428.htm (最後瀏覽日期:20130128)。 11. 朱金池,「反恐維安的警政策略探討」,第四屆「恐怖主義與國家安全」學術研討會,頁26,1998年,請參照http://trc.cpu.edu.tw/ezfiles/93/1093/img/117/971215_2.pdf(最後瀏覽日期:20130618)。 12. 林泰和,「核子恐怖主義之發展及因應作為──嚇阻理論之反思」,第五屆「恐怖主義與國家安全」學術暨實務研討會,頁41,1999年,請參照http://trc.cpu.edu.tw/ezfiles/93/1093/img/118/9811264.pdf (最後瀏覽日期:20130618)。 13. 台灣綠色和平組織網站,請參照http://www.greenpeace.org/taiwan/zh/aboutus/history/ (最後流覽日期:20121207)。 電子媒體 1. 反美麗灣的人都來敲!「敲牆姐」恐觸法,東森新聞記者吳宜霖、謝宜倫/台東報導2012年10月30日,| ETtoday地方新聞 | ETtoday 新聞雲,請參照http://www.ettoday.net/news/20121030/120819.htm (最後瀏覽日期:20130507)。 2. 何玉華,對抗「斧頭幫」護樹運動成功,自由時報電子報http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2009/new/nov/26/today-north16.htm (最後瀏覽日期:20130422)。 3. 潘杏惠、黃立翔,自由時報電子報,派出所「樹」敵 志工為移樹請命,請參照http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2010/new/oct/3/today-taipei2.htm (最後瀏覽日期20130422)。 4. 公視新聞網,護樹人士抗議 警民一度爆發衝突,請參照http://news.pts.org.tw/detail.php?NEENO=237346 (最後瀏覽日期:20130422)。 5. 致命毒信 寄給歐巴馬,聯合報陳韻涵綜合報導,請參照 http://udn.com/NEWS/WORLD/WOR1/7839623.shtml#ixzz2Qnyw3VOc (最後瀏覽日期:20130418)。 6. 中央廣播電台,2013年04月22日,蔡得勝:反恐法可有效防恐,請參照http://n.yam.com/rti/politics/20130422/20130422408434.html (最後瀏覽日期:20130601)。 7. 苗栗大埔徵地案跳票 農民內政部前爆衝突,自由時報電子報,請參照http://iservice.libertytimes.com.tw/liveNews/news.php?no=677389&type=%E6%94%BF%E6%B2%BB (最後瀏覽日期:20120110)。 8. 大埔事件之毀田影片,請參照http://www.peopo.org/news/53635 (最後瀏覽日期:20130208)。2010/06/19 網路公民新聞媒體「台灣好生活電子報」,「兩百年祖傳良田,苗栗縣政府怪手強奪」,作者:關魚、清大農村讀書會、新頭殼,請參照http://www.taiwangoodlife.org/story/20100619/2128 (最後瀏覽日期:20130208)。 9. 「台灣人民挺農村717凱道守夜行動」,請參照http://www.todei.org/node/153 (最後瀏覽日期:20130208)。 10. 楊宗興/台東報導,美麗灣環評爆衝突 反對者闖入遭警驅離,新頭殼newtalk 2012.12.22,請參照http://newtalk.tw/news/2012/12/22/32212.html (最後瀏覽日期:20130110)。 11. 美麗灣有條件通過 兩派人馬推擠爆衝突,中時影音2012-12-23,請參照http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jo067ybaDps (最後瀏覽日期20130110)。 12. 台東美麗灣開發案通過 環團將提告,請參照http://news.chinatimes.com/politics/11050202/112012122300076.html (最後瀏覽日期:20130110)。 13. 台灣環境保護聯盟網站,台東美麗灣渡假村大事紀,請參照http://www.tepu.org.tw/?p=9233 (最後瀏覽日期:20130215)。 14. 花蓮人"一級痛苦"? 尋找蘇花高真相,中時電子報/守寍寍台北報導,請參照http://forums.chinatimes.com/report/people/960511/01.htm (最後瀏覽日期:20130213)。 15. 中視新聞/高鐵炸彈客胡宗賢 汽油加鎂粉當炸藥,請參照http://www.globalreport.org/tv?video=224647 (最後瀏覽日期:20130523)。 16. 中國時報/2行李炸彈客落網 主嫌是律師,請參照http://news.chinatimes.com/focus/501013251/112013041700082.html (最後瀏覽日期:20130523)。 17. 中廣新聞/高鐵炸彈客犯案動機影響股市? 檢警:待查證,請參照http://news.chinatimes.com/focus/501013259/132013041800864.html (最後瀏覽日期:20130523)。 18. 民視新聞 /高鐵炸彈客 鎖定台北車站引爆,請參照http://news.ftv.com.tw/NewsContent.aspx?ntype=class&sno=2013416S02M1 (最後瀏覽日期:20130523)。 19. 自由時報高鐵炸彈案 國土室沒開過會應變,請參照http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2013/new/apr/23/today-fo2.htm (最後瀏覽日期:20130523)。 20. 孫介珩,中國時報,「國際保育訟案 看台灣政府反應」20120527,請參照http://news.chinatimes.com/forum/11051402/112012052700330.html,(最後流覽日期:20121207)。 政府資料 1. (司法院)大法官釋字第426號。 2. (司法院)大法官釋字第465號。 3. 最高行政法院判決101年度判字第514號。 4. 最高行政法院99年度判字第403號判決。 5. 最高行政法院101年度判字第55號判決。 6. 最高行政法院101年度判字第860號判決。 7. 高雄高等行政法院判決99年度訴更一字第8號。 8. 高雄高等行政法院96年度訴字第647號判決。 9. 高雄高等行政法院98年度訴字第47號判決。 10. 中華民國總統府,〈制定國防部參謀本部組織法〉,《總統府公報》,第7062號,2012年12月12日,華總一義字第10100274261號。 11. 中華民國總統府,〈制定外國護照簽證條例〉,《總統府公報》,第6279號,1999年06月02日,華總一義字第8800124360號。中華民國總統府,〈修正外國護照簽證條例〉,《總統府公報》,第6503號,2003年01月22日,華總一義字第09200011670號。 12. 中華民國總統府,〈制定環境教育法〉,《總統府公報》,第6925號,2010年6月5日,華總一義字第09900137311號。 13. 中華民國總統府,〈增訂並修正刑事訴訟法條文〉,《總統府公報》,第6447期,2002年2月 14. 中華民國總統府,增訂、刪除並修正刑事訴訟法條文,《總統府公報》,第6505期,2003年02月06日,華總一義字第09200019330號。 15. 中華民國總統府,〈制定行政程序法〉,《總統府公報》,第6258期,1999年2月3日,華總一義字第8800027120號。 16. 臺灣臺北地方法院刑事判決九十四年度重訴字第三號判決。 17. 經營字第10104604770號函,請參照http://www.llwfd.org.tw/notice_view.aspx?id=422 (最後瀏覽日期:20130215)。 18. 交通部公路總局蘇花公路改善工程處,請參照http://www.suhua.gov.tw/SubPages/%E8%A8%88%E7%95%AB%E7%B7%A3%E8%B5%B7.html(最後瀏覽日期:20130112)。 19. 立法院公報,立法院第93卷,第01期(3335)公報。 20. 立法院公報,第08屆 第03會期 第11會次,院總第310號 委員提案第14937號,本院委員蔡正元等33人。 21. 立法院公報,第08屆 第03會期 第11會次,院總第310號 委員提案第14970號,本院委員馬文君等30人。 22. 行政院公報,第08屆 第03會期 第11會次,院總第310號 委員提案第14982號,本院委員李俊俋等17人。 英文 書籍 1. ALEX PETER SCHMID, A. J. JONGMAN POLITICAL TERRORISM: A NEW GUIDE TO ACTORS, AUTHORS, CONCEPTS, DATA BASES, THEORIES, & LITERATURE, TRANSACTION PUBLISHERS (2005). 2. BEAU GROSSCUP, STRATEGIC TERROR: THE POLITICS AND ETHICS OF AERIAL BOMBARDMENT, ZED ZOOKS (2006). 3. CHARLES TOWNSHEND, TERRORISM: A VERY SHORT INTRODUCTION, OXFORD UNIV PR (2003). 4. DONALD R. LIDDICK, ECO-TERRORISM:RADICAL ENVIRONMENTAL AND ANIMAL LIBERATION MOVEMENTS, PRAEGER PUBLISHERS, U.S.A. (2006). 5. DOUGLAS LONG, ECOTERRORISM , NEW YORK: FACTS ON FILE (2004). 6. JUN, NATHAN J. &WAHL, SHANE, NEW PERSPECTIVES ON ANARCHISM, ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD PUB INC (2009). 7. AUDREY KURTH CRONIN & JAMES M. LUDES , ATTACKING TERRORISM: ELEMENTS OF A GRAND STRATEGY, GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY PRESS (2004). 8. ROSALYN HIGGINS & MAURICE FLORY , TERRORISM AND INTERNATIONAL LAW , ROUTLEDGE (1997). 9. RICK ATKINSON, CRUSADE: THE UNTOLD STORY OF THE PERSIAN GULF WAR , MARINER BOOKS (1994). 10. SCHMID, ALEX P. & JONGMAN, ALBERT J., POLITICAL TERRORISM, TRANSACTION PUB (2005). 期刊 1. Alyson B. Walker, Comments: A Field of Failed Dreams: Problems Passing Effective Ecoterrorism Legislation, 18 Vill. Envtl. L. J. 99 (2007). 2. Avi Brisman, Crime-Environment Relationships and Environmental Justice, 6 Seattle J. Soc. Just. 727 (2008). 3. Daniel M. Schwartz, Environmental Terrorism: Analyzing the Concept, 35 J. PEACE RES. 483,483-496 (1998). 4. Douglass F. Rohrman, Environmental Terrorism, 2 FRONT ECOL ENVIRON 332, 332 (2004). 5. Elizabeth L. Chalecki , A New Vigilance: Identifying and Reducing the Risks of Environmental Terrorism, 2 Global Environ. Polit. 46, 46-64 (2002). 6. John Zirschky, Environmental Terrorism, 60 J. WATER POLLUT. CONTROL FED. 1206, 1207 (1988). 7. Kevin H. Govern, Agroterrorism and Ecoterrorism: A Survey of Indo-American Approaches under Law and Policies to Prevent and Defend Against These Potential Threats Ahead, 10 Fl. Coastal L. Rev. 223 (2009). 8. LaFree, Gary and Laura Dugan, Introducing the Global Terrorism Database,19 Terrorism and Political Violence 181 (2007). 9. LaFree, Gary, Laura Dugan, and Raven Korte, Is Counter Terrorism Counterproductive? Northern Ireland 1969-1992, 47 Criminology 501 (2009). 10. Robert M.O’Brien, Measuring the Convergence/Divergence of “Serious Crime” Arrest Rates for Males and Females: 1960-1995, 15 J. Quantitative Criminology 97 (1999). 11. Rebecca K. Smith, “Ecoterrorism”? : A Critical Analysis of the Vilification of Radical Environmental Activists as Terrorists, 38 ENVIT. L. 537 (2008). 12. Steve Vanderheiden, Eco-terrorism or Justified Resistance? Radical Environmentalism and the “War on Terror”, 33 POLITICS & SOCIETY 425, 425-447 (2005). 13. Susan Tiefenbrun, A Semiotic Approach to a Legal Definition of Terrorism, 9 ISLA J. Int’l & Comp. L. 357 (2002). 14. Timothy Schofield, The Environment as an Ideological Weapon: A Proposal to Criminalize Environmental Terrorism, 26 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 619 (1999). 法院判決 1. Darryl Cherney v. Mendocino County, Mendocino County Sheriff ,192 F.3d 1283(2005). 2. Highland Enterprises, Inc. v. Billy Jo Barker, 133 Idaho 330, 986 P.2d 996(1999). 3. Huffman and Wright Logging Co. v. Valeri J. Wade, 109 Or.App. 37, 817 P.2d 1334 (1991). 4. Trail Smelter, U.S. v. Canada, 3 R.I.A.A. 1911 (1941). 5. Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc v. Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty USA, A.2d, 2005 WL 1010454 (N.J.Super.Ch.2005). 6. United States v. John P. Blount, 34 F.3d 865, 25 Envtl. L. Rep. 20,017(9th Cir. 1994). 7. United States v. Joel Andrew Wyatt, 408 F.3d 1257, 35 Envtl. L. Rep. 20,107, 2005 Daily Journal D.A.R. 6117(9th Cir. 2005). 8. United States v. Briana Waters, F.Supp.2d, 2006 WL 3761338 (W.D.Wash.)(2006). 9. United States v. Briana Waters, F.Supp.2d, 2010 WL 148679 (W.D.Wash.)(2010). 10. United States v. Briana Waters, 622 F.3d 1075, C.A.9 (Wash.)(2010). 11. United States v. Kendall Tankersley, 537 F.3d 1100, 08 Cal. Daily Op. Serv. 10,503, 2008 Daily Journal D.A.R.12,607(2008). 12. United States v. Katherine Christianson, 586 F.3d 532 (7th Cir. 2009). 13. United States v. William James Viehl ,2010 WL 148398 (D.Utah). 學位論文 1. Carson, Jennifer Varriale, Ph.D., The Criminal Conduct of Radical Environmental and Animal Rights Groups: A Rational Choice Perspective on Morality, University of Maryland, College Park (2010). 國際公約 1. ASEAN Convention on Counter Terrorism, ACCT (2002). 2. Arab Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism (1998). 3. Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft,704 UNTS 219; 20 UST 2941; 2 ILM 1042 (1963). 4. Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, 860 UNTS 105; 22 UST 1641; 10 ILM 133 (1971). 5. Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation , 974 UNTS 177; 24 UST 564; 10 ILM 1151 (1971). 6. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material , 1456 UNTS 101; TIAS 11080; 18 ILM 1419 (1979). 7. Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques, 31 UST 333, 1108 UNTS 152(1977). 8. Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, 27 ILM 668 (1988); 1678 UNTS 221. 9. Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection , 30 ILM 721 (1991). 10. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, 1015 UNTS 163; 11 ILM 309 (1972). 11. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, 1974 UNTS 45; 32 ILM 800 (1993). 12. Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm Declaration, U.N. Doc. A/Conf.48/14/Rev. 1(1973); 11 ILM 1416 (1972). 13. European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Framework Decision 2002/475 on Combating Terrorism, (OJ) L 164/3, 13 June 2002, 2002/475/JHA . 14. Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field,75 UNTS 31(1949). 15. Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, 75 UNTS 85(1949). 16. Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War ,75 UNTS 287(1949). 17. Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, 75 UNTS 287.2(1949). 18. International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages, G.A. Res. 146 (XXXIV), U.N. GAOR, 34th Sess., Supp. No. 46, at 245, U.N. Doc. A/34/46 (1979), entered into force June 3, 1983. 19. International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings, U.N. Doc. A/RES/52/164; 37 ILM 249 (1998); 2149 UNTS 284. 20. International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, U.N. Doc. A/RES/54/109; 39 ILM 270 (2000); TIAS No. 13075. 21. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, UN Doc. A/RES/59/290 (2005). 22. OAS Convention to Prevent and Punish Acts of Terrorism Taking the Form of Crimes against Persons and Related Extortion that are of International Significance, TIAS No. 8413; 27 UST 3949; OAS, Treaty Series, no. 37 (1971). 23. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 1125 UNTS 3(1977). 24. Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation , 27 ILM 627 (1988); 1589 UNTS 473. 25. Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf, 1678 UNTS 304; 27 ILM 685 (1988). 26. Protocol Amending the European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, ETS No. 190 (2003). 27. Shanghai Convention on combating terrorism, separatism and extremism (2001). 28. United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, Including Diplomatic Agents, 1035 UNTS 167; 28 UST 1975; 13 ILM 41 (1974); 68 AJIL 383. 29. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1833 UNTS 3; 21 ILM 1261 (1982). 30. UN Action to Counter Terrorism, International Legal Instruments to Counter Terrorism, available at http://www.un.org/terrorism/instruments.shtml(last visited on June 10, 2013). 31. 1996 Protocol to the London Convention 1972 , Nov.7,1996, 36 ILM 1 (1997). 32. 1954 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, May 12,1954. available at http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/RecordDetails?id=TRE-000135&index=treaties(last visited on June 17, 2013). 33. ROPME Website, Kuwait Regional Convention for Cooperation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution, available at http://ropme.org/Legal%20Instruments.clx(last visited on June 17, 2013). 34. World Charter for Nature ,G.A. Res. 37/7, U.N. GAOR, 37th Sess., Supp. No. 51, at 17, U.N. Doc. A/37/51 (1982); 22 ILM 455 (1983). 國際組織文件 1. Challenges and Change, 59th Sess., Agenda Item 55,at 47 , U.N. Doc. A/59/565(2004). 2. Draft Comprehensive Convention Against International Terrorism, U.N. Doc. A/59/894(2005). 3. European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Framework Decision 2002/475 on Combating Terrorism, (OJ) L 164/3, 13 June 2002, 2002/475/JHA . 4. Protocol Amending the European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, ETS No. 190 (2003) 5. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, Protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism, A.Res.60/158, U.N.GAOR, 70th Sess., U.N. Doc. A/RES/60/158(2006). 6. United Nations, Charter of the United Nations,24 October 1945, 1 U.N.T.S XVI. 7. U.N. SCOR, 4053rd mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1269 (1999). 8. U.N. SCOR, 4385th mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1373 (2001). 9. U.N. SCOR, 4413th mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1377 (2001). 10. U.N. SCOR, 4624th mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1438 (2002). 11. U.N. SCOR, 4632nd mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1440 (2002). 12. U.N. SCOR, 4667th mtg, U.N.Doc. S/RES/1450 (2002). 13. U.N. SCOR, 4688th mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1456 (2003). 14. U.N. SCOR, 4706th mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1465 (2003). 15. U.N. SCOR, 4867th mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1516 (2003). 16. U.N. SCOR, 4923rd mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1530 (2004). 17. U.N. SCOR, 5053rd mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1566 (2004). 18. U.N. SCOR, 5609th mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1735 (2006). 19. U.N. SCOR, 6459th mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/1963 (2010). 20. U.N. SCOR, 6890th mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/2082 (2012). 21. U.N. SCOR, 6890th mtg, U.N. Doc.S/RES/2083 (2012). 22. U.N. SCOR, 2981st mtg, U.N. Doc. S/RES/687 (1991). 23. U.N. GAOR, 84th mtg, U.N. Doc. A/RES/49/60 (1994). 24. United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy , A.Res.60/288, U.N.GAOR, 60th Sess., U.N.Doc. A/RES/60/288(2006). 25. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, GA res. 217A (III), UN Doc A/810 at 71 (1948). 網路資源 1. Alleged Canadian arsonist wanted for eco-terrorism surrenders to the U.S. after decade on the run, available at http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/11/29/rebecca-jeanette-rubin/ (last visited on February 14,2013). 2. Animal Liberation Front, available at http://www.animalliberationfront.com/ALFront/ARMilitia.htm (last visited on December 8, 2012). 3. Attorney for Captain Paul Watson Confirms Sea Shepherd''s Beliefs: Japan is Seeking to Extradite Watson, available at http://www.seashepherd.org/news-and-media/2012/07/26/attorney-for-captain-paul-watson-confirms-sea-shepherds-beliefs-japan-is-seeking-to-extradite-watson-141(last visited on December 8, 2012). 4. ALF Website, available at http://animalliberationpressoffice.org/publications%20online/ALF_leaflet_biteback.pdf (last visited on October 4, 2012). 5. Biographical Sketches by Ron Huber from his travels between 1980 and 1992, and other biographical materials through 2006, available at http://penbay.org/ronhuber/ronhuber.html (last visited on January 5,2012). 6. Civil Disobedience, available at http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/writing/civ-dis.htm (last visited on October 18, 2012). 7. Cleveland Amory Black Beauty Ranch, available at http://www.blackbeautyranch.org/about/about_amory_cleveland.html (last visited on May24, 2013). 8. Canadian Security Intelligence Service, Terrorism, available at http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/prrts/trrrsm/index-eng.asp(last visited on December 15, 2012). 9. Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, available at http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp? documentid=97&articleid=1503(last visited on May 27, 2013). 10. Direct Action’s Definition:the use of strikes,violence or protests as a way of trying to get what you want, instead of talking. Cambridge Dictionaries Online,Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, available at http:// dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/direct-action (last visited on October 18, 2012). 11. Earth First!Website , available at http://earthfirstjournal.org/index.php (last visited on June 9, 2013). 12. Federal Bureau of Investigation website, Terrorism 2002-2005, available at http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/terrorism-2002-2005(last visited on May 5, 2013). 13. Federal Bureau of Investigation website, Global Threats to the U.S. and the FBI''s Response February 16, 2005, available at http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/ global-threats-to-the-u.s.-and-the-fbis-response-1(last visited on May 5, 2013). 14. Federal Bureau of Investigation Website, A Brief History, available at http:// www.fbi.gov/phoenix/about-us/history-1(last visited on May25, 2013). 15. Federal Bureau of Investigation website, Terrorism Preparedness, available at http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/terrorism-preparedness-2. (last visited on January15, 2013). 16. Federal Bureau of Investigation website, Eco-Terror Indictments ''Operation Backfire'' Nets 11, available at http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2006/january/elf012006 (last visited on May 22) 17. Federal Bureau of Investigation website, Domestic Terrorism In the Post-9/11 Era, available at http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2009/september/domterror_090709 (last visited on May 29, 2012) 18. Federal Bureau of Investigation website, Operation Backfire Help Find Four Eco-Terrorists, available at http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2008/november/backfire_11908 (last visited on May 22, 2013). 19. Federal Bureau of Investigation Website, The Threat of Eco-Terrorism, available at http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/the-threat-of-eco-terrorism (last visited on June 9, 2013). 20. Federal Bureau of Investigation website, Animal Rights Extremism and Eco-terrorism, available at http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/animal-rights-extremism-and-ecoterrorism(last visited on June 10, 2013). 21. Federal Bureau of Investigation website, Putting Intel to Work Against ELF and ALF Terrorists, available at http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2008/june/ecoterror_063008 (last visited on May 22, 2013). 22. Federal Bureau of Investigation website , Operation Backfire , available at http://www.fbi.gov/news/speeches/operation-backfire(last visited on June 10, 2013) 23. Greenpeace USA, available at http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/actions/Peaceful-Protest/ (last visited on October 18, 2012). 24. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?chart=weapon&casualties_type=&casualties_max=&perpetrator=10056 (last visited on January15, 2013). 25. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=199005100013 (last visited on January15, 2013). 26. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=199005240021 (last visited on January15, 2013). 27. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?search=Animal+Liberation+Front+%2CEarth+Liberation+Front+&sa.x=0&sa.y=0&sa=Search (last visited on January15, 2013). 28. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=199711300011 (last visited on January15, 2013). 29. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=201106010031 (last visited on May25, 2013). 30. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?expanded=no&search=Earth+Liberation+Front&ob=GTDID&od=desc&page=1&count=100#results-table (last visited on January15, 2013). 31. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?charttype=pie&chart=attack&search=Earth%20Liberation%20Front&count=100 (last visited on January15, 2013). 32. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=199004220006 (last visited on May24, 2013). 33. Global Terrorism Database, http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=198611110008 (last visited on January15, 2013). 34. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?charttype=pie&chart=attack&search=Animal%20Rights%20Militia (last visited on January15, 2013). 35. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=200808230020 (last visited on January15, 2013). 36. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=200601300006 (last visited on January15, 2013). 37. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=200606270004 (last visited on January15, 2013). 38. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?chartovertime&search=Animal%20Liberation%20Front&count=100 (last visited on January15, 2013). 39. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/Results.aspx?charttype=pie&chart=attack&search=Animal%20Liberation%20Front&count=100 (last visited on January15, 2013). 40. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=3239(last visited on May25, 2013). 41. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=200005070004 (last visited on May24, 2013). 42. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=197111200002 (last visited on January21, 2013). 43. Global Terrorism Database, available at http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/search/IncidentSummary.aspx?gtdid=199703100002 (last visited on January21, 2013). 44. Jesica E. Seacor, Environmental Terrorism: Lessons from The Oil Fires Of Kuwait, American University Journal of International Law and Policy, (1994).Available at http://www.auilr.org/pdf/10/10-1-7.pdf(last visited on June 17, 2013). 45. Life on the run: After six years in hiding, Canadian eco-radical surrenders to FBI, available at http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/12/03/rebecca-jeanette-rubin-eco-radical-surrenders/ (last visited on February 14,2013). 46. Megan O''Toole, Hate crimes unit called in after purported animal-rights group threatens to poison food in Chinatown, 20021112,available at http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/12/02/hate-crimes-unit-called-in-after-purported-animal-rights-group-threatens-to-poison-food-in-chinatown/ (last visited on February 14,2013). 47. PETA Web site “The Silver Spring Monkeys: The Case That Launched PETA”, available at http://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/the-silver-spring-monkeys.aspx (last visited on November 27, 2012). 48. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Agent Orange, available at http://www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/agentorange/(last visited on June 10, 2013). 49. Sea Shepherd Conservation Society website, available at http://www.seashepherd.org/who-we-are/ (last visited on May24, 2013). 50. Sea Shepherd Conservation Society news, Captain Paul Watson Arrested In Frankfurt, Germany on Warrant Issued by Costa Rica, available at http://www.seashepherd.org/news-and-media/2012/05/13/captain-paul-watson-arrested-in-frankfurt-germany-on-warrant-issued-by-costa-rica-1374 (last visited on December 8, 2012). 51. The Central Intelligence Agency website, available at https://www.cia.gov/zh/(last visited on June10, 2013). 52. UN Action to Counter Terrorism, International Legal Instruments to Counter Terrorism, available at http://www.un.org/terrorism/instruments.shtml(last visited on June 9, 2013). 53. U.N., Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force, available at http://www.un.org/en/terrorism/ctitf/index.shtml (last visited on June 17, 2013). 54. UN Action to Counter Terrorism, International Legal Instruments to Counter Terrorism, available at http://www.un.org/terrorism/instruments.shtml(last visited on June 10, 2013). 55. U.N. website, available at http://www.un.org/terrorism/index.shtml(last visited on June 10, 2013). 56. The Central Intelligence Agency website, available at https://www.cia.gov/zh/(last visited on June10, 2013). 57. Environment News Service UN Denial of Billions in Gulf War Health Compensation Denounced, available at http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jul2005/2005-07-25-01.html (last visited on January 1, 2012). 其他相關研究報告 1. Country Reports on Terrorism 2012,Office of The Coordinator for Counterterrorism,available at http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209978.htm(last visited on June3, 2013). 2. Federal Bureau of Investigation website, Terrorism 2002-2005, available at http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/terrorism-2002-2005 (last visited on June10, 2013). 3. Lum, Cynthia, and Leslie W. Kennedy, Alison J. Sherley. 2006. "The Effectiveness of Counter-Terrorism Strategies: A Campbell Systematic Review." Washington, DC: Crime and Justice Coordinating Group, The Campbell Collaboration. 4. Simon Dalby, Terror and Environmental Security After September 11TH, Draft paper for presentation to the National Policy Conference, Ottawa, October (2002). 5. TERRORISM in the United States 1999 Counterterrorism Threat Assessment and Warning Unit Counterterrorism Division, available at http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/terror_99.pdf (last visited on May 29, 2013). 6. Uniting And Strengthening America By Providing Appropriate Tools Required To Intercept And Obstruct Terrorism (Usa Patriot Act) Act of 2001, Pub.L.No.107-56, 115 Stat. 272(2001). 7. U.S. Department of State, Terrorist Designations and State Sponsors of Terrorism, available at http://www.state.gov/j/ct/list/index.htm(last visited on May 29, 2013).
摘要: 「生態恐怖主義」是美國政府新近關注的恐怖主義類型,與單純以自然環境為攻擊對象的「環境恐怖主義」不同。美國聯邦調查局定義生態恐怖主義係以環境政治相關的次級團體為對象,目的是以環境導向的,並採用旨在引起目標以外之人之注意而以使用暴力或威脅使用暴力的行為,對待無辜受害者或其財產。生態恐怖主義與環境恐怖主義因名稱都與環境有關而易生混淆。美國聯邦調查局認為美國國內某些極端環境主義團體的主張與行動為生態恐怖主義,係肇因為極端環境主義團體常以保護動物或生態為名,採取激進的行為,因此被聯邦調查局認為是國內恐怖主義的類型之一。美國除了立法應對生態恐怖主義外,聯邦調查局並具體實施「逆火行動」對抗之。但生態恐怖主義是否達到恐怖主義的程度,容有疑慮。美國的反恐法制有侵害人權之虞,且無法杜絕恐怖主義的發生。生態恐怖主義的實施是因為環境法規與動物保護法規與政策未能符合社會上快速提升的環境保護意識,而激發而出的思潮。在我國尚未發生生態恐怖主義思潮之前,宜參考美國的經驗,以政策先行的方式,減輕與環保團體或居民的衝突,並擴大公眾參與,用溝通與疏導的方式解決目前國內環境法規與動物法規的相關問題,避免生態恐怖主義發生。
Ecological terrorism is a new type of terrorisms concerned by the U.S government, which is different from the environmental terrorism by using the forces on nature for hostile purposes. The FBI defines ecological terrorism as those environmental-oriented or environmental-political sub-national groups, whom is claiming on usage or threatened usage of violence on symbolic nature to against innocent victims or their properties, and aimed at bringing attentions from general publics. The FBI accused the radical activies done by several domestic environmental protectioin organizations and animal rights extremist fitting on their definition of ecological terrorist. The US Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act expands the federal government’s legal authority to combat animal rights extremists who engage in criminal activity. The FBI also found ecological terrorist by establishing Operation Backfire to bring them to justice. However, the defined ecological terrorism shall not be considered as one type of terrorisms. Moreover, the U.S. anti-terrorism policy and legislations violates human rights, such hard regulations and enforcements could not stop the happening of domestic terrorist activities. The happenings of ecological terrorism are contributed by the rapid raising of environmental and animal protection awareness in the society. In Taiwan, before ecological terrorism occurs in the future, the government should adopt many policies and measures to release tensions among developers, residents and environment protection groups. This article compared the reasons causing the ecological terrorism in the U.S. through legal analysis. It will also provide suggestions to Taiwan government for preventing the ecological terrorism from happening within its jurisdiction.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/21413
其他識別: U0005-2208201314011700
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2208201314011700
Appears in Collections:法律學系

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.