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Using matK sequence data to unravel genetic variation of Casuarina international Provenances and Casuarina grown in Taiwan
Tiao, Chen Chen
|摘要:||木賊葉木麻黃(Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. & Forst.)在東南亞及澳洲之熱帶及亞熱帶海岸地區有廣闊的原生植群分布，木麻黃類在台灣引種繁殖時間長，形態分類困難，加上栽植面積廣，已有馴化現象。但是否有地域品種形成，及是否有種間漸滲雜交現象發生有待釐清。本實驗採用木麻黃葉綠體之matK序列進行遺傳關係之鑑定。matK序列相比於其他序列其演化速度快，非同義取代量大及插入缺失事件發生次數都較多。所以有利於用來分析不同的種間關係。本實驗材料包含木賊葉木麻黃、銀木麻黃、肯氏木麻黃原生種源加木賊葉木麻黃栽培種源及台灣海岸栽培木麻黃。把三個種源序列作基因型分析時發現木賊葉木麻黃在同一地區基因型並不完全一致，而肯氏及銀木麻黃則有同一地區同一基因型現象。應用Modeltest軟體(hLRT及AIC檢定)找到最符合木麻黃DNA資料的模式(h，接著利用貝貽理論(Bayesian Inference)及最大概度法(Maximum Likelihood)找到最佳的演化樹。發現其演化樹中銀木麻黃跟肯氏木麻黃最接近，後才跟木賊葉木麻黃原生種源接在一起。對木賊葉木麻黃栽培種源研究後，發現木賊葉木麻黃栽培種源在演化樹上被放到木賊葉原生種源樹枝內，並無證據顯示有雜交的發生。對台灣海岸栽培木麻黃分析後，在形態上出現在木賊葉木麻黃及銀木麻黃中間型的9個樣本(來自台中港、石門、芳苑、鹽寮、南澳的部分樣本)中3個樣本(台中港兩個樣本、芳苑一樣本)在演化樹上被放到靠近銀木麻黃原生種源的分支位置，表示這3個樣本可能是母本銀木麻黃和父本木賊葉木麻黃的雜交後代，另外6個則可能是母本木賊葉木麻黃和父本銀木麻黃的雜交後代。|
Abstract Casuarina has been introduced and cultivated in Taiwan for a long time. The classification of the plant grown in Taiwan is difficult. The area of cultivation is wide spread and in some areas they have escaped from cultivation. Whether there is introgressive hybridization between species still remain to be clarified. The matK sequence of chloroplast genome was employed for the study of genetic relationship in Casuarina in the present study. Compared to other sequences, matK has faster evolutionary rate and more non-synonymous substitutions and indel events. The sequence is suitable for the study of relation between species. The materials used in the present study includes native provenances of C. equisetifolia, C. glauca, C. cunnunghamiana, cultivated provenances of C. equisetifolia, and the Casuarina cultivated on the coast of Taiwan. When the same sequences of different individuals were treated as a haplotype, different individuals of a provenance belong to the same haplotype in C. glauca and C. cunninghamiana while it is different in C. equisetifolia. Modeltest software was used to find the best DNA model based on hLRT and AIC test methods and the best model found was used in Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods to obtain best evolution trees. Among three species studied, C. glauca and C. cunninghamiana have closer relationship. The evolution trees resulted from Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses indicated that there is resolution among species. However, the resolution within species is poor. The result of the study including native provenances of three species and cultivated provenances of C. equisetifolia indicated that all samples of cultivated provenances were clustered within the clade of C. equisetifolia. There is no evidence of hybridization in the samples of cultivated provenances. The result of the study including native provenances of three species and Casuarina grown in Taiwan indicated that among nine samples that are morphologically intermediate between C. equisetifolia and C. glauca (part of samples from Port of Taichung, Simun, Funyien, Yienliao, and Nanau), three samples were clustered within the clade of C. glauca indicating that these three samples may be the result of hybridization between maternal C.glauca an paternal C. equisetifolia. The remaining six intermediate samples clustered within the clade of C. equisetifolia may be the result of hybridization between maternal C. equisetifolia and paternal C. glauca.
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