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標題: 以底棲鞘翅目與蜘蛛目群聚組成探討台北市富陽自然公園之棲地現況
Interpretation of the habitat of Fu-Yang urban park in Taipei by using the community composition of epigaeic beetles and spiders (Coleoptera and Araneae)
作者: 范文欣
Fan, Wen-Hsin
關鍵字: indicator species
pitfall trap
environmental monitoring
出版社: 生命科學系所
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摘要: 指標物種可以讓我們迅速且容易了解當地棲地的狀態或預測其他物種的多樣性。好的指標能呈現出非常重要的生態變異,甚至在環境變動等事件發生後,指標物種能提供的線索反而比實際上測量到的因子還具有生態上的意義。由於鞘翅目(甲蟲)與蜘蛛目物種在分類與生態上都發展得相當完善,對棲地的改變及破碎化較為敏感,在土壤表層活動的物種多且豐富。本研究以此二目當做生態監測的目標類群,在台北市富陽自然公園內設置7條穿越線,鄰接的對照區福州山與大安410公園預定地各設置2條穿越線,從2005年7月到2006年2月使用掉落式陷阱收集底棲鞘翅目與蜘蛛目物種,鑑定至科及形態種。以了解富陽自然公園中底棲鞘翅目與蜘蛛目物種偏好的環境,並找出不同棲地類型中的指標物種以了解棲地的狀態。 複迴歸結果顯示坡度能預測甲蟲與蜘蛛的物種數與個體數,呈負相關。另外,草本植物覆蓋度亦能預測甲蟲的物種數和個體數,呈負相關。喬木覆蓋度和落葉覆蓋度能預測蜘蛛個體數,呈負相關。落葉覆蓋度能預測蜘蛛的物種數,呈正相關。皆與所收集的甲蟲大部分為腐食性及雜食性與蜘蛛優勢種有關。以甲蟲與蜘蛛豐量分別將所有樣點歸為四群棲地類群,甲蟲的第Ⅰ群與蜘蛛的第A群皆排除不進行指標值分析。富陽自然公園中甲蟲廣布種中指標值最高的是小蠹蟲A和B(100%);隱翅蟲A為植被與落葉高覆蓋棲地的指標物種;「Ⅲ-喬木高覆蓋」型棲地中的兩種指標物種為出尾蟲科D和C。蜘蛛廣布種指標值最高的為皿蛛科A(83%);狼蛛A、卵蛛A與鷲蛛A皆為「光照充足棲地」的指標物種;袋蛛C、道士蛛A、輝蛛A、蟹蛛A與高腳蛛A為「C-向陽坡棲地」之指標物種;狼蛛C與草蛛C為「D-低喬木覆蓋谷地型」指標物種。這些指標物種分析出來之後,在往後監測群落生境的品質,將可提供較具體的依據,以制定經營管理與維護策略。
Indicator species are species chosen to reflect rapidly the changes of habitat conditions, or to predict the diversity of other taxa. A good indicator species is not only representing the critical ecological variations but also providing meaningful clues during environmental changes. Therefore, it provides meaningful ecological information than the message of direct measurement of environmental factors. Beetles(Coleoptera)and spiders(Araneae)are groups of epigaeic invertebrates which were well-developed taxonomically and ecologically. They are sensitive to the environmental changes and the on going fragmentation of habitats. Since they are active on soil surface, abundant and easy to monitor, we use the epigaeic beetles and spiders as the target species to develop the potential indicators for monitoring the habitat of Fu-Yang urban park in Taipei. The study focused on the habitat preferences of beetle and spider as well as identifying the indicator species for the different types of habitat. I collected beetles and spiders by using pitfall traps on seven transect lines at Fu-Yang urban park in Taipei from July 2005 to February 2006. Individual animal specimen was brought back to laboratory and identified to the family and morphospecies level. Multiple regression was successfully used to predict the individuals and number of beetles and spiders by the percentage of steepness of the habitat with negative coefficients. And the percentage of grass coverage was also negatively correlated with the individuals and number of beetles. The wood coverage and litter coverage significantly predict the individuals of spiders with negative regression coefficients. And the litter coverage was positively correlated with number of spider. The empirical model can be explained with the ecological characteristics of saprophage and omnivore guilds of beetles and the presence of dominant species of spiders. Each sampling site was assigned to each of the four habitat groups by using clustering technique based on the abundance of beetles and spiders respectively. We exclude the habitat typeⅠof beetles and the habitat type A of spiders from indicator species analysis. The Scolytidae A and B were the beetle generalist and have the highest indicator value(100%);Staphylinidae A is the indicator species for the high vegetation and litter coverage habitat type;the indicator species of 「Ⅲ-high wood coverage」habitat type are Nitidulidae D and C. The generalist of spider is Linyphiidae A which has the highest indictor value(83%);the indicator species for the habitat with high exposures of sun light are Lycosidae A、Oonopidae A and Gnaphosidae A;the indicator species for 「C-slope exposed to the sun」habitat type are Clubionidae C、Zodariidae A、Liocranidae A、Liocranidae A and Heteropodidae A;the indicator species for「D-low wood coverage valley」habitat type are Lycosidae C and Agelenidae C. These indicator species identified could be used to monitor the quality of biotopes, and lead to develop some strategies for setting and managing healthy habitats for the park.
其他識別: U0005-2408200602180300
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