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Population Differentiation of Gray Mullets (Mugil cephalus L.) in the Coastal Waters of Taiwan
phosphoglucose isomerase A
細胞色素 b 基因
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|摘要:||烏魚(Mugil cephalus Linnaeus)是台灣沿岸重要經濟魚類之一。為瞭解烏魚在台灣沿海的族群分化以及遺傳結構，本研究利用PCR及定序方式分析95隻個體的粒線體細胞色素 b 基因 (Cyt b)。並利用RT-PCR及定序方式分析15隻個體的核內基因磷酸葡萄糖異構酶 (Pgi-A)。粒線體細胞色素 b 基因的親緣關係樹及ΦST皆支持台灣沿岸烏魚存在三個族群(Group 1、 Group2 、Group 3)。此三個族群內的遺傳距離分別為0.30 % (± 0.08 %)、 0.03 % (± 0.01 %) 、0.52 % (± 0.12 %)。Group 1與Group 2的遺傳距離為5.29 % (± 0.62 %)， Group1與Group 2的遺傳距離為6.96 % (± 0.71 %)，Group 2與Group 3的遺傳距離為 6.51 % (± 0.73 %)。中性理論以及mismatch distribution的分析，顯示Group 1及Group 2 曾發生瓶頸效應，然後發生族群擴張。由於三群之間的親緣關係在Baysian, ML, MP, and NJ 方式所建構的親緣關係樹並不同，因此無法決定此三群的親緣關係。以Pgi-A基因建構的親緣關係樹與Cyt b 並不完全相符合，因為只有Group 3形成單系群，但是Group 1與Group 2則形成並系群。此現象顯示Group 1與Group 2有基因交流。 此外，利用PCR-RFLP快速鑑定仔稚魚的方式，進一步瞭解不同群仔稚魚數量在時間上的改變。Group 1及Group 3的仔稚魚在十一月即出現在河口，而Group 2在二月前都無發現其仔稚魚。此外，Group 1與Group 2成魚標本的採集時間大都在十二月、一月、二月份，其中分別包含了中國及日本的標本。所以Group 1及Group 2可能是從中國及日本沿海洄游到台灣沿海產卵的洄游群。Group 3仔稚魚出現的時間在十一月而且在本研究並未採得十二月至二月的成魚標本，所以推測此族群為在地群。|
Gray mullet, Mugil cephalus Linnaeus is one of the most important economic fish in the coastal waters of Taiwan. In order to understand the population differentiation and genetic structure of gray mullet in Taiwan, cytochrome b (Cyt b, 1137 bp) of 95 individuals and phosphoglucose isomerase A (Pgi-A, 1662 bp) of 30 individuals were amplified by PCR or RT-PCR methods and subsequently sequenced. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed with Cyt b sequences and results of ΦST suggested the existence of three populations (Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3) of gray mullet around the coastal waters of Taiwan. Between-group genetic distances were 5.29 % (± 0.62 %), 6.96 % (± 0.71 %), and 6.51 % (± 0.73 %) for Group 1 and Group 2, Group 1 and Group 3, and Group2 and Group3, respectively. Within-group genetic distances were 0.30 % (± 0.08 %), 0.03 % (± 0.01 %), and 0.52 % (± 0.12 %) for Group1, Group2, and Group3, respectively. Neutrality tests and mismatch distributions indicated that Group 1 and Group 2 had experienced population expansion. In the Cyt b gene, because phylogenetic relationships among the three groups are different among the trees reconstructed by Baysian, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbor joining methods, the relationships among them were not resolved. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed with Pgi sequences were not completely congruent with that of Cyt b sequences. Specifically, only the Group 3 was monophyletic but the Group 1 and Group 2 were paraphyletic. This result suggests Group 1 and Group 2 are interbreeding. For estimating relative abundance of juveniles of the three groups, a PCR-RFLP method was developed. The results of RFLP showed that juveniles of Group1 and Group 3 can be found as early as November but juveniles of Group 2 were not found until February. Because adult specimens of Group 1 and Group 2 were mainly collected during December, January, and February and Group 1 and Group 2 contained the adult specimens from China and Japan, respectively, I propose that Group 1 and Group 2 are migratory populations from the coastal waters of China and Japan during the spawning season. Because Group 3 is the most abundant group in November and adult specimens were not found between November and February of the next year, I propose that Group 3 is a resident population found only in Taiwan.
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