Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/22580
標題: 台灣兩種赤蛙的親緣地理結構比較
Comparative phylogeography of two ranids in Taiwan
作者: 張廖年鴻
Nian-Hong, Jang-Liaw
關鍵字: cytochrome b
系統發育
mtDNA
phylogeny
Rana sauteri
Sylvirana latouchii
拉都希氏赤蛙
細胞色素b
粒線體去氧核糖核酸
梭德氏赤蛙
出版社: 生命科學系所
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摘要: 本研究選取兩種台灣赤蛙科兩生類--拉都希氏赤蛙以及梭德氏赤蛙--作為實驗對象,利用粒線體去氧核糖核酸序列定序技術分別定序出198拉都希氏赤蛙以及244隻梭德氏赤蛙個體的cytochrome b序列片段,由其系統發育結構、網狀親緣結構以及分子時鐘排序等資訊來探討其族群間基因層級的差異,藉以瞭解不同族群間的親緣關係,以及推論可能的物種擴散歷程,進而建立並比較兩個物種的地理分佈模式。 本研究從台灣的拉都希氏赤蛙樣本中找出39個基因單型,在系統發育結構上主要可分成北部系群、西部系群以及東部-恆春系群,其中東部-恆春系群又可分為東部亞群及恆春半島亞群,西部系群有被濁水溪隔離成中西部及西南部系群的趨勢。系群間的地理界線相當清楚,彼此間族群或個體幾乎沒有重疊。梭德氏赤蛙的族群地理分佈則略為複雜,本研究共找出其77個基因單型,可分為兩個主要系群:第一系群有分佈在中央山脈以東的東部亞群、台灣中北部的北部亞群、台灣西南部,但以較高海拔山區為主的南山亞群以及較低海拔地區的南丘亞群;第二系群則僅分佈在三義以北地區,分佈區域和北山亞群重疊。兩個物種遷入台灣的途徑及歷程都可套用二次入侵模式,其中拉都希氏赤蛙在第一次遷入台灣時,並未成功的在北部建立族群;梭德氏赤蛙則在台灣北部共域存在著兩個系群,分別來自兩個不同的族群遷入事件。此外,梭德氏赤蛙在台灣的西南部出現了一個適應低海拔環境的系群,可能藉由生殖隔離的方式與鄰近高海拔地區的族群產生基因結構上的差異。 台灣島內兩種赤蛙的族群擴散模式不盡相同,主要系群的分化時間並不一樣。但兩者的擴散模式中仍有幾項相同點:1) 祖先族群進入台灣的路徑可能是經由今日苗栗丘陵地區的中港溪及頭前溪水系;2) 北部系群的遷入台灣的時間較晚,在遷入前即與大陸族群產生分化,遷入後族群分佈侷限於北台灣地區;3) 島內最早開始分化的族群為東部系群,反映了中央山脈對台灣動物地理形成的重要性。此外,兩個物種不同系群間的地理分佈亦頗為類似,基本上都是以山脈等地理特徵作為系群間的地理區隔。但是高山的阻隔對於梭德氏赤蛙的族群交流影響比較小,反倒是不同海拔的氣候類型可能造成高海拔及低海拔間梭德氏赤蛙族群的生殖隔離,進而產生遺傳上的差異。 由拉都希氏赤蛙與梭德氏赤蛙兩種兩棲類的族群遺傳結構,所歸納出來的台灣動物地理區劃與包括淡水魚在內的其他小型陸生脊椎動物有著高度的相似性。透過物種間的比較可歸納出台灣動物地理區的範圍及特性,進而對於台灣島的動物相演進史有著更進一步的認識。
To comprehend the geographical patterns of genetic variation in anurans in Taiwan, the genetic structures of Sylvirana latouchii from 203 individuals, and Rana latouchii from 244 individuals were tested using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences. Phylogenetic structures, nested clade analyses, and molecular clock tests were applied to compare the phylogeography of these two species. In S. latouchii's study, a neighbor-joining tree of 39 haplotypes revealed three major divergences among Taiwanese individuals: the northern, western, and eastern-and-peninsula clades. Each clade was restricted to single geographical district and showed obvious differentiation. In R. sauteri's result, 77 haplotypes from 5 distant lineages, including northern lineage (NL), eastern lineage (EL), southern hill lineage (SHL), northern mountain lineage (NML), had been identified from phylogenetic analyses. The lineages of these two frogs show congruence on both biogeographic history and phylogenetic structures as follows: (1) The routes into Taiwan in the first beginning of migration events were located near Miaoli Plateau. (2) Both northern lineages migrated into Taiwan most recently, and limited in northern part of this island. (3) The first divergence events within this island were occurred by the formation of Central Mountain Rang. Phylogenetic results of both species exposed the possibility of multiple invasions hypothesis to the formation of Taiwanese fauna. Another contribution of this study is to summarize the biogeography of terrestrial vertebrates into five districts as follows: Northern District, Eastern District, Northern part of Western District, Southern part of Western District, and Hengchun Peninsula District. This biogeographic pattern is corresponsive to the landscape characters of Taiwan. There are some disagreements on the comparative phylogeny between these two species. The first colonization of S. latouchii failed to establish stable populations in northern Taiwan, but two lineages from different invasion events of R. sauteri occupied northern Taiwan sympatrically. Furthermore, a divergent lineage of R. sauteri in western-southern Taiwan had been identified and which was potentially occurred by reproduction isolation. The patterns of geographical divergence in these species reflect common historical events experienced by other native animals distributed in Taiwan such as freshwater fishes. The orders of divergence times between lineages were inferred using a molecular clock tests. Hypotheses of within-island differentiation models and multiple incursion models are proposed to depict the possible colonization history of S. latouchii and R. sauteri in Taiwan. The population relationships of S. latouchii between Taiwan and mainland China were also discussed.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/22580
其他識別: U0005-2808200700572400
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2808200700572400
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