Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/22597
標題: 台灣產奴草屬植物蜜腺構造和蜜液動態變化與成分
Nectary structure and nectar secretion dynamics and composition of Mitrastemon in Taiwan
作者: 劉盈吟
Liu, Ying-Yin
關鍵字: Mitrastemon
奴草屬
nectary
nectar
蜜腺
蜜液
出版社: 生命科學系所
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摘要: 奴草屬(Mitrastemon)為大花草科(Rafflesiaceae)之全寄生性植物,內寄生型。台灣有兩種:菱形奴草(M. kanehirai Y. Yamamoto)與台灣奴草(M. kawasasakii Hayata),分布於中海拔闊葉林。花朵為兩性花,子房上位,雄蕊先熟,呈筒狀環繞之雄蕊筒,靠近頂端具環帶狀的花藥。花朵發育階段可分成出芽期、雄蕊期、雌蕊期、果實期與種子期。從雄蕊期起在最內層麟葉可觀察到大量蓄積之蜜液,一直到果實期仍可見。本研究選取菱形奴草不同發育階段的個體,在掃描式電子顯微鏡下進行鏡檢,發現在最上層(1-2對)鱗葉、花被與子房壁上皆有蜜腺孔,呈隨機分布;有些呈氣孔狀由兩個保衛細胞組成。蜜腺孔呈圓形至橢圓形,直徑約為30-160μm,孔徑大小間差異極大,鱗葉與花被上的氣孔數量較少,隨著發育階段氣孔大小並沒有明顯變大;子房壁表面具有大量蜜腺孔,雌蕊期後蜜腺孔開口擴張成圓形。蜜腺孔自出芽期便已經打開,失去自由關閉的功能,推測即為蜜液流出之孔洞。由蜜腺孔的分布及蜜腺切片,推測奴草蜜腺為零散分布在子房壁、花被及最上層鱗葉基部。由切片中得知奴草蜜腺細胞呈團狀,鄰近蜜腺組織有維管束通過,維管束具木質部與韌皮部。與其他植物相比,奴草具有豐富的蜜液體積,糖度則比其他植物低;體積與糖度皆在分泌初期較低,盛開期最高,隨後於果實期緩慢下降。台灣奴草分泌花蜜體積比菱形奴草多,開花期亦比較長,糖度比菱形奴草稍低但差距不大。蜜液糖成分主要為果糖與葡萄糖,並有少量蔗糖。
Mitrastemon (Rafflesiaceae) are nonphotosynthetic parasites that live on host roots. Two species of Mitrastemon, M. kanehirai Y. Yamamoto and M. kawasasakii Hayata are distributed mainly in broad-leafed forests at mid-altitudes of Taiwan. The flower is bisexual, hypogynous, and with protandrous, tubular androecium whose anther are fused in a broad ring. The growth period of Mitrastemon can be divided into four stages: bud, anthesis (androecium and gynoecium), fruit, and seed. From anthesis to fruit stage, we observed a large mount of nectar stored in upper scare leaves. We choice different growth stage of Mitrastemon to observe necatry under SEM. Some nectary pores were located at the base overy, perianth, and upper scale leaves, respectively. The size of the nectary pores did not change significantly in four growth stage. There were many nectary pores on the ovary, and the pores extended into round at the gynoecium stage. Sizes of the necatry pores were rather difference (30-160μm in diameter), round to ellipse, and were randomly distributed. Nectary pores were open at all stages. Compared with other plants, Mitrastemon offers more volume of nectar, but the concentration of the nectar was lower. The volume and concentration of Mitrastemon nectar was lower at the beginning of androecium stage, and higher at gynoecium stage, and slowly down in fruit stage. M. kawasasakii Hayata had more volume of nectar and long blooming time than M. kanehirai Y. Yamamoto, but with slightly lower concentration of nectar. The sugar composition of Mitrastemon nectar were mainly fructose and glucose, and sucrose was only of small amount.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/22597
其他識別: U0005-2908200714285100
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