Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2265
標題: 使用中機車定檢成效評估與污染排放推估
Investigation of I/M program effect and evaluation of the motorcycle emissions
作者: 吳欣璇
Wu, Hsin Hsuan
關鍵字: 機車
污染
定期檢驗制度
排放
出版社: 機械工程學系
摘要: 八十五年開始,行政院環保署正式於全台實施機車定期檢驗制度,參與定檢的機車到目前為止已經超過一千萬輛次,本文的目的是透過這些數據探討台灣地區機車污染排放狀況歷年演變及評估定期檢驗制度成效。而另外一個目的是發展出一套簡易的污染推估模式,由這套模式中可得知機車污染的主要來源,及影響機車污染排放的主要因素。 在定檢的數據分析方面,本文發現歷年的數據中,二行程機車的比例由60%降至53%,四行程則不斷提昇,這主要是加嚴空氣污染排放標準所導致。全體的機車污染排放值也有逐年下降的現象,參加定檢前的CO排放濃度在1%以下的比例是逐年提昇,調修後的CO濃度也逐年下降。四年以上的車輛,其污染排放反而隨著車齡增加而降低,這是定檢的效應。雖然四行程機車的新車污染值較低,但因行駛里程的累積速度快,所以四行程機車的劣化較二行程嚴重。 八十八年參加機車排氣定期檢驗的平均不合格率為18.9%,但各定檢站的不合格率差異大,在10%~30%之間,呈γ分佈。合理的不合格率範圍為1.89 %~37.78 %。有49站在合理範圍外,45站偏高,4站偏低。高雄市的不合格率最高,新竹市最低。高雄市各車齡機車的排放濃度都比新竹市高。 本文發現機車的污染造成量以1年至6年的新車為主,其中CO的貢獻量二行程機車約為四行程機車的兩倍。而HC的貢獻量二行程機車是四行程機車的十倍。定檢對不合格機車調修後CO改善比例為67.72%,HC改善比例為46.1%。若以機車惰轉的排放量來推估,則定檢對針對全部機車的改善比例CO改善成效為11.65%,HC改善成效為6.21%,可得定檢的減量成效CO為29059公噸,HC為6567公噸。若考慮行駛里程的因素,定檢對污染排放的改善成效會降低。並且發現惰轉改善比例與以行車型態改善比例差異並不大。 在污染排放推估方面,本文發現機車的污染排放與車輛總數,行駛里程,及排放係數有關,但車輛總數中尚需考慮車齡分佈及車輛組成的影響,而排放係數與行車型態,劣化程度,及冷車起動等都有關係,而污染排放量即是各項影響因素影響下的結果,其中以冷啟動修正係數影響最大。而二行程機車在超過耐久里程後會有加速劣化的情形,四行程機車的劣化較連續。 考量影響因素後,本文發展出一套推估模式,由這個模式推估出機車污染排放總量,CO共有416523公噸,HC共有211942公噸,以車齡三年的機車的污染排放比例最高。計算定檢的削減量,行車型態的CO的削減量為49691公噸,HC的削減量為12843公噸。
EPA initiated the I/M Program for motorcycles since 1996. There are more than ten millions motorcycles participated this program so far. This paper investigated the effect of the I/M program on the motorcycle emissions, and evaluated the emission reduction of the motorcycles over the years. It was found that the marketing share of two stoke motorcycles declined from 60% to 53% in the past four years since the enforcement of the I/M program. The averaged emission levels of CO and HC were found to decrease for motorcycles over four years old. If both the mileage traveled and the vehicle population distribution were considered , the motorcycles under six years old were found to be the major pollution contributor. The average failure rate of I/M program was 18.9% in 1999. However, the failure rate varied from stations to stations and from county to county. The failure rates varied between 10% to 30% for most I/M stations, and distributed like aγdistribution. It was determined in this paper that the reasonable range for the failure rate is between 1.89 % and 37.78 %. There are 49 I/M stations outside the reasonable range. A model was built in this paper to estimate the global emission rates of motorcycles. Several factors were considered in this model, including the cold start, the driving pattern, and the deterioration rate. It was found that the cold-start coefficient plays the most important role. Two stroke motorcycles have two deterioration rates, but four stroke motorcycles just have one deterioration rate. With this model, a total of 416523 tons for CO emission and 211942 tons for HC emission were estimated. The motorcycles of three years old were found to be the highest pollution maker.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/2265
Appears in Collections:機械工程學系所

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