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標題: 武陵地區水生昆蟲對石附生藻類影響之研究
Effects of aquatic insect larvae on epilithic algae in the Wuling area
作者: 于淑芬
關鍵字: Wuling area
chlorophyll a
gut contents
出版社: 生命科學系所
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摘要: 武陵地區溪流是瀕臨滅絕台灣櫻花鈎吻鮭的唯一棲地,但是溪流濱岸卻有為數不少的農耕地,除耕地之施肥,造成本區溪水水質營養鹽增高外,更由於溪岸植被砍伐殆盡進而使得溪流水溫增高影響鮭魚之生長及繁殖。本研究目的為瞭解本區溪流主要初級生產者之石附生藻類之豐度及群集結構,以及農業活動對於石附生藻類之影響,同時探討七家灣溪內植食性水生昆蟲食性及食量,以及水生昆蟲對於藻類群集及藻類生長型式之影響。研究成果發現本區石附生藻類生物量有明顯之季節變化,在春、冬季較高,夏、秋季較低,且有高度農業活動之有勝溪明顯較本區其他溪流為高。在本區石附生藻類有85%是矽藻,其中以Achnanthidium豐度最高。石附生藻類群集亦呈現明顯的時空變異,且水溫、導電度、NO2+NO3、SiO2及流速是石附生藻類群集季節變化之主要因子,而構成空間分布差異之主要因子為NO2+NO3、覆蓋度及植食者密度。而植食性之水生昆蟲與石附生藻類相關性研究中,發現植食性水生昆蟲數量與石上葉綠素a 成正比,也就是說石上藻類量愈多植食性水生昆蟲數量就愈多。在有植食性水生昆蟲處理之石塊上黏著性(adnate)及直立型(erect)的藻種例如Achnanthidium, Cocconeis, Diatoma, Planothidium, 及 Synedra明顯比沒有水生昆蟲之石塊少。MDS分析顯示植食性水生昆蟲腸內含物有明顯冬、夏之差異。植食性水生昆蟲腸內含物在冬季幾乎都只是矽藻,但是夏季除了大部分是矽藻外,還發現有綠藻及藍綠菌。在植食性水生昆蟲食物偏好性測定,發現冬、夏季植食性水生昆蟲偏好之藻種類似。SIMPER分析發現Achnanthidium是植食性水生昆蟲最喜愛的藻屬。在植食性水生昆蟲食量部分,本研究在瀨區石上採取七家灣溪中最優勢之種類扁蜉蝣(Rhithrogena sp.)及沼石蠶(Uenoa sp.)為研究對象。發現扁蜉蝣一天中取食時間以下午六時較高,但沼石蠶則在各時間點之取食量均無差異。利用排空率計算植食性水生昆蟲每日攝食量,發現排空率算出之食量若除以平均蟲體重(蜉蝣為1.751mg、沼石蠶為0.809mg)來算,則扁蜉蝣食量是直接計算腸葉綠素a方法之1.5倍,但與利用藻板處理所測得之食量來比較,則低估136-250倍,而沼石蠶則低估約16倍。無論冬季或夏季,扁蜉蝣攝食對於藻類群集影響不顯著,對於藻類生長型式之影響則僅有夏季有顯著影響。沼石蠶則對於藻群集有顯著影響,但對於藻生長型式並無顯著影響。
This study aimed to characterize the abundance and community structure of epilithic algae and to examine the effects of intensive agriculture in mountain streams of the Wuling area, where is the only habitat of the endangered Taiwanese masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus). The grazing effects of dominant aquatic insect larvae on the community and physiognomy of epilithic algae and the gut contents were also quantified. The results showed that there were significant seasonal variations in epilithic algal biomass, with higher values in spring and winter and lower values in summer and fall. Effects of agriculture on the subtropical streams of the Wuling area were significant and varied with the extent of agriculture in the catchment. The biomass was significantly higher in Yousheng Stream with a larger area of agriculture than in other streams. Diatoms were the most abundant species, contributing over 85% to the total cell number. Most of these were pennatae diatoms, of which the genus Achnanthidium was the most abundant in the area. However, the communities showed clear seasonal and spatial changes. BIOENV analysis suggested that the combination of water temperature, conductivity, NO2+NO3 and SiO2 concentrations and current velocity comprised the major factors explaining seasonal changes in the community, while the combination of NO2+NO3 concentration, canopy cover and grazer density comprised the major factors affecting spatial changes. It was also found that total individual numbers of grazing aquatic insect larvae correlated positively with chlorophyll a concentrations of epilithic algae on rubbles in the stream. Grazer-exclusion experiments show that cell numbers of adnate and erect algae such as Achnanthidium, Cocconeis, Diatoma, Planothidium, and Synedra were significantly lower on the grazed rubble. MDS ordination and ANOSIM analysis demonstrated that there were significant differences in the gut contents of dominant aquatic insect larvae collected in winter and summer. In winter, almost diatoms only were observed in the gut contents. In summer, in addition to diatoms, green algae and cyanobacteria were also observed remarkably in the gut contents. Despite the seasonal variation, preferred diatom species in the gut contents were similar in summer and winter. SIMPER analysis showed that Achnanthidium were the most preferred diatom genus in the gut contents. The mayfly (Rhithrogena sp.) showed a clear diel change in feeding rate, but Uenoa sp. didn't. The gut evacuation rate of Rhithrogena sp. was estimated to be 0.338± 0.450 μg Chl a per individual, while Uenoa sp. was estimated to be 9.806 ± 11.810 μg Chl a per individual. These values were 1.5 times greater than the values directly calculated by chlorophyll a concentrations in the gut contents, but were 136-250 times lower than the values of the grazed bricks by aquatic insect larvae in the stream. Rhithrogena sp. was found not to affect the structure of epilithic algae, but grazed the abundance of epilithic algae in summer. Nevertheless, Uenoa sp. was found to significiently affect the structure of epilithic algal community in the Wuling area.
其他識別: U0005-2208200803080200
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所



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