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|標題:||Dairy Market Regulations of Major Dairy Producing Countries and Marketing Planning for the Dairy Industry in Taiwan|
|關鍵字:||Fluid milk products|
Milk product marketing
|摘要:||Upon becoming a member of the World Trade Organization on January 1, 2002, Taiwan has lowered the restrictions and tariffs of imported dairy products. The competition in the domestic market has increased due to changes in trade regulations. This study introduces the production, marketing, and general market regulations of dairy products in United States, European Union, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Domestic production, processing, and consumption data are collected from dairy farmers, processors, and consumers in this study to examine the cognition differences among three different stages in the contemporary changing environment. The results of this study can be formed as baselines for regulation reforms or as references for strategic marketing planning of the dairy industry.
Among major dairy producing countries, market regulations have played important roles in directing the development of dairy industries. The Federal Milk Marketing Orders and the Price Support Programs are major policies that guide the production, processing, and marketing of dairy products in United States. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) regulates the dairy industry in the European Union. The dairy industry in New Zealand is export-oriented and is operated under free market mechanism. The Australian agricultural administration utilizes the Dairy Adjustment Levy to gradually deregulate the market to a competitive free market environment under the Dairy Structural Adjustment Program. The dairy production in Japan is planned by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The total production quotas and amount of replenishment are assessed on an annual basis. The regulations and policies of major dairy producing countries are formed or amended following the development of the dairy industries, and the strategic marketing planning and implementations are designed based upon the export-oriented or domestic supply-oriented production. Te regulations and marketing strategies of major dairy producing countries provide valuable references and guidelines to the regulation reforms of the dairy industry in Taiwan.
The results of the survey data analyzed in this study indicated that the dairy farmers believed that the future of the domestic milk consumption would be stable, and the impact of imported fluid milk products on the domestic market would be noticeable. The managers in the processing plants thought the market of domestic milk consumption would be gradually reduced. Controversially, the surveyed managers argued that the impact of imported fluid milk may only generate minimal influences on the domestic milk market.
This study also conducted consumer surveys in three major metropolitan areas (Taipei, Taichung, Kaohsiung) and three counties/cities (Hsinchu, Yunlin, and Tainan) in Taiwan using personal interviewing technique. The cluster analysis was utilized to segment consumers into domestic/imported indifferent, domestic product preferred, and imported product preferred clusters using imported milk product purchasing intentions and the variables of domestic/imported attribute perceptions. Respondents in the domestic product preferred cluster consisted of more females and household wives, and consumed relatively higher quantities of fluid milk products. The imported product preferred cluster included respondents of relatively young age ranges with higher household income. More students were in the imported product preferred cluster and consumed relatively less fluid milk products.
The factor analysis was applied in this study to extract dimensions of relevant considering factors. When purchasing fluid milk products, the factors of quality/components, price characteristics, and advertising/packaging were considered. For respondents' attribute cognition, three dimensions could be extracted including raw milk sources, product processing, and product appearances. The respondents in the imported product preferred cluster paid more attention to the dimension of raw milk sources. The respondents in the domestic product preferred cluster valued the factors related to taste, flavor, nutrient, and packaging of milk products more heavily. For respondents who were indifferent of imported and domestic milk products, the product prices could be the factors that influenced the purchasing decisions.
Based on the results of this study, the suggestions to the domestic dairy industry are to reinforce the regulations of product component labeling to ensure the rights of consumers. For domestic milk promotion and extension, the dairy industry needs to have a specific organization that coordinates the consumer education, extension, strategic marketing mixes that similar to the examples of major dairy producing countries outlined in this study to strengthen domestic consumers' knowledge, perceptions, and the habits of milk consumption. This study further provides product, price, promotion, and place strategies of fluid milk products in addition to the regulation suggestions.|
我國於2002年1月1日正式加入世界貿易組織（WTO）後，各類乳品的進口限制漸減且稅率逐漸調降，我國乳業面臨市場競爭之程度增加。本研究概述美國、歐盟、澳洲、紐西蘭、及日本等世界主要乳品生產國的乳品市場制度、產銷概況及市場行銷策略，作為我國乳業規範及行銷之參考。研究並搜集國內酪農、乳廠、及消費者之調查資料以瞭解乳品市場中生產、製造、及消費三階段在環境改變下的認知及偏好，作為行銷策略分析之基礎。 在世界主要乳品產製國的市場規範中，美國以農業法規範乳業之發展，目前主導美國乳業最主要的規範為聯邦牛乳運銷訓令（Federal Milk Marketing Orders）及價格支持計畫（Price Support Programs）。歐盟乳業的市場規範，是架構於歐盟會員國制定之共同農業政策（Common Agricultural Policy, CAP）之下。紐西蘭的乳業並未對產業之發展賦予過多的規範，是以出口為導向之機制。澳洲的聯邦政府利用液態乳消費之乳業調整捐，逐年完成乳業調整計畫之相關法規及回復自由市場之機制。日本生乳的生產是採計劃性生產模式，由農林水產省決定生乳生產的最高限額及補給金的額度。本研究中所探討的世界主要乳品產製國之相關規範皆是依產業之發展持續進行法規修正，並依其生產為內銷或外銷主導提供行銷之策略規劃及實施方案。世界主要乳品產製國之規範及行銷策略中多有我國可借鏡之處。 本研究中所搜集的調查資料分析結果顯示，受訪酪農認為未來的國產鮮乳市場之消費應呈現平穩的狀態，當面對國外液態乳的競爭時，會對臺灣乳業造成衝擊。乳廠方面，較多乳廠認為未來國產鮮乳的市場需求將逐漸減少，但對於進口液態乳的衝擊，乳廠卻又樂觀的表示應僅是略有影響。 在消費者問卷部分，本研究依北中南選取三大都會區（台北、台中、高雄）及三個縣市（新竹、雲林、台南）進行消費者人員訪查。本研究依消費者對進口鮮乳的購買意願及國產/進口鮮乳的屬性認知，利用集群分析將消費者區分為國產/進口無差異群、國產偏好群、及進口偏好群。國產偏好群的女性比例較高，職業以家管為主，是三群中液態乳飲用量最高的一群。進口偏好群平均年齡最低，家計單位平均月收入最高，職業以學生所佔比例較高，平均每月的鮮乳飲用量相對較少。 本研究並利用因子分析離析消費者購買液態乳時之考量構面，分別將構面命名為品質/成份因子、價格特性因子、及廣告/包裝因子。在消費者的國產/進口液態乳屬性認知方面，本研究另離析出三個隱含因子構面，分別命名為生乳來源因子、產品製造因子、及商品呈現因子。本研究進一步研究不同型態消費的三群體在因子構面上的差異，結果顯示進口偏好群較為重視產品來源的部份，而國產偏好群則注重產品製造過程中所創造的口感、口味、營養成份、以及產品的包裝等，國產/進口無差異群相較於其他兩群，則較重視產品的價格。 本研究基礎於研究結果，對國內乳業之規範建議為強化包裝上的成份規範標示，確保消費者權益。對於國內的乳品消費推廣，國內乳業需參考國外的行銷模式，由專職機構統籌並規劃年度之教育、推廣、及行銷策略組合。強化消費者對乳品的認知及消費習慣的培養。本研究並依研究結果提出產品、價格、促銷、及通路之國產液態乳行銷策略組合。
|Appears in Collections:||行銷學系所|
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